77 terms

Online Health: Module 4

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Alcohol
the drug in wine, beer, and liquor that causes intoxication
Intoxication
the physical and mental changes produced by drinking alcohol
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
the amount of alcohol in a person's blood, expressed as a percentage
Binge Drinking
the act of drinking five or more drinks in one sitting
Cirrhosis
a deadly disease that replaces healthy liver tissue with scar tissue; most often caused by long-term alcohol abuse
Inhibitions
the natural limits that people put on their behavior
Short-Term Effects of Alcohol on the Body
1) irritates mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach
2) makes the heart work harder
3) makes the body lose heat
4) causes the liver to work harder
5) causes dehydration
Short-Term Effects of Alcohol on the Mind
1) slows down the nervous system
2) 1 or 2 drinks: more relaxed, talkative, laugh easily
3) 2 drinks: can't make good decisions, pay attention, follow complex ideas, or cope with difficult situations, loses inhibitions
4) few more drinks: can't focus eyes, slurs speech, lose coordination, possible drastic mood swings, loses judgment, may do things they would never do sober
BAC Info
1) legal limit for driving under influence is 0.08
2) however, even 0.02 can affect one's ability to drive
BAC Levels
1) .02-.05: slowed reaction time; feeling of relaxation; warmth; well-being; feeling of euphoria; loss of inhibitions; decreased judgment
2) .1-.15: impaired vision, judgment, reflexes, coordination; mood swings; seriously affected coordination; blurred vision; severely impaired speech; difficulty walking/standing; memory problems; mood swings; violent behavior
3) .2-.3: blackouts; memory loss; stomach irritation; vomiting; loss of consciousness; numbness; dangerously slowed breathing; coma
4) .4-.5: death from alcohol poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning/Overdose
1) extreme vomiting; loss of consciousness; dangerously slowed breathing
2) can be fatal
3) turn victim on side; administer CPR as needed
Long-Term Effects of Alcohol on the Body
1) irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure (hypertension), enlargement of the heart, anemia
2) hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer
3) Irritation to the esophagus and stomach; stomach bleeding; cancer of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach
4) decreased ability to absorb vitamins
5) diminished immune system function
6) brain damage (shrunken brain, dead brain cells); dementia
Alcohol Abuse
drinking too much alcohol, drinking it too often, or drinking it at inappropriate times
Alcoholism
a disease that causes a person to lose control of his or her drinking behavior; a physical and emotional addiction to alcohol
Enabling
helping an addict avoid the negative consequences of his or her behavior
Codependency
a condition in which a family member or friend sacrifices his or her own needs to meet the needs of an addict
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a set of physical and mental defects that affect a fetus that has been exposed to alcohol because of the mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
Statistics
1) percentage of adults who lived with an alcoholic at some point while growing up: 20%
2) number of children currently living in homes with an alcoholic: 5 million
3) percentage of domestic violence cases in which alcohol is involved: 31%
Stages of Alcoholism
1) problem drinking: drinker can't drink alcohol in moderation or at appropriate times
2) tolerance: drinker needs more alcohol to produce same effect
3) dependence: drinker's body needs alcohol to function normally
4) alcoholism: drinker has lost control of drinking behavior
Risk Factors for Alcoholism
1) age
2) social environment
3) genetics
4) risk-taking personality
Warning Signs of Alcoholism
1) drinking to deal with anger, frustration, disappointment
2) changing friends, personal habits, interests
3) being defensive about drinking
4) feeling depressed
5) drinking more for the same high
6) drinking alone
7) drinking to get drunk
8) experiencing memory lapses as a result of drinking alcohol
Alcoholism Affects the Family
1) guilty feelings
2) unpredictable behavior
3) violence
4) neglect and isolation
5) protecting the alcoholic
6) ignoring one's own needs
Alcoholism Affects Society
1) productivity loss due to alcohol-related illness
2) productivity loss due to premature death
3) medical bills
4) auto crashes
5) crime
Treatment Programs
1) endure difficult stages of withdrawal
2) understand why he/she became addicted to alcohol
3) ex: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Al-Anon, Alateen
Designated Driver
a person who chooses not to drink alcohol in a social setting so that he or she can safely drive himself or herself and others
Getting Home Safe and Sober
1) don't drink
2) plan ahead
3) have an arrangement with your parents or guardian to pick you up if you need a safe ride home
4) call a cab
5) if a friend attempts to drink and drive, take their keys
Drinking Puts Your Future at Risk
1) jail/probation/police record
2) sexual activity
3) diving/drowning
4) young brains can be greatly affected
Saying No to Alcohol
1) buy yourself time
2) give good reasons why you choose not to drink
3) state the consequences that could result if you do drink
4) say no firmly
5) if necessary, say no again and include an alternate activity
6) walk away
Joining the Fight Against Drunk Driving
1) Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
2) Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD)
Nicotine
the highly addictive drug that is found in all tobacco products
Carcinogen
any chemical or agent that causes cancer
Tar
a sticky, black substance in tobacco smoke that coats the inside of the airways and that contains many carcinogens
Carbon Monoxide
a gas that blocks oxygen from getting into the bloodstream
Poisonous Chemicals in Cigarette Smoke
1) cyanide—a poisonous gas used to develop photographs
2) formaldehyde—a substance used to preserve laboratory animals and as embalming fluid
3) lead—a dangerous metal
4) vinyl chloride—a flammable gas used to make plastic products
5) carbon monoxide—a gas that blocks oxygen from getting into the bloodstream
6) ammonia—a chemical found in bathroom cleaners
Snuff (Dip) and Chewing Tobacco
1) nicotine and tar
2) carcinogens: arsenic, nickel, benzopyrene, polonium (gives off radiation)
3) lead to mouth sores and oral cancer
4) oral cancer can be severely disfiguring when large amounts of tissue and bone must be removed to treat it
Causes of Deaths due to Cigarette Smoking
1) lung cancer: 28%
2) heart disease: 20%
3) chronic lung disease: 21%
4) other diagnoses (ex: sudden infant death syndrome): 19%
5) other cancers: 8%
6) stroke: 4%
Emphysema
a respiratory disease in which air cannot move in and out of alveoli because they break down and lose their elasticity
Sidestream Smoke
smoke that escapes from the tip of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
Mainstream Smoke
smoke that is inhaled through a cigarette and then exhaled by a cigarette smoker
Environmental Tobacco Smoke/Secondhand Smoke
a combination of exhaled mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke
Short-Term Effects of Tobacco Use
1) stimulates the brain reward system
2) increases heart rate and blood pressure
3) increases breathing rate
4) increases blood-sugar levels
5) stimulates the vomit reflex
Long-Term Effects of Tobacco Use
1) addiction
2) bronchitis and emphysema
3) heart and artery diseases
4) cancer
Effects of Tobacco on the Brain
1) reduces oxygen to the brain
2) narrows blood vessels
3) can lead to strokes
4) nicotine changes the brain in ways that lead to addiction
Effects of Tobacco on the Mouth
1) changes the natural chemical balance inside the mouth
2) increased plaque, gum disease, and tooth decay
3) tar in tobacco smoke stains teeth yellow
Effects of Tobacco on the Heart
1) nicotine increases heart rate and blood pressure and narrows the blood vessels
2) increases the risk of hardened and clogged arteries, which can lead to a heart attack
Effects of Tobacco on the Lungs
1) puts carcinogens directly into the lungs
2) kills the tiny hairs that remove harmful substances from the lungs
3) loss of these hairs increases the risk of bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer
Effects of Tobacco on Skin
1) breaks down the proteins that give skin elasticity
2) leads to wrinkles and premature aging of the skin
3) increases a person's chances of developing skin cancer
Effects of Tobacco on the Immune System
1) reduce the activity of immune system cells
2) increases the chances of suffering from diseases such as cancer
Other Long-Term Effects of Tobacco Use
1) damages stomach's ability to neutralize acid after a meal
2) leads to ulcers and to cancer
3) makes you unattractive (discolored teeth and bad breath, receding gums and sores in their mouths, odor of smoke, film of tar on your clothes, dulls the senses of smell and taste)
Dangers of Secondhand Smoke
1) kills 3,400 nonsmokers in the United States each year
2) linked with nasal sinus cancer and possibly cancers of the cervix, breast, and bladder
3) causes noncancerous illness (respiratory infections, asthma, ear infections, reduces heart function)
4) causes headaches, nausea, and dizziness
Dangers of Tobacco Use During Pregnancy
1) risk the health of unborn child
2) chemicals from cigarette smoke pass through the placenta to the developing infant and affect the baby the same way they affect the mother
3) can lead to miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight
4) higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in which infants die in their sleep for unknown reasons
5) developmental difficulties
Effects of Tobacco on the Fetus and Baby
1) risk of miscarriage
2) risk of premature birth
3) low birth weight
4) slow growth rate
5) risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
6) risk of developing respiratory illness
7) risk of developing learning difficulties
Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT)
a form of medicine that delivers small amounts of nicotine to the body to help a person quit using tobacco
Why People Use Tobacco
1) family and friends
2) misconceptions
3) advertising
4) curiosity
5) rebellion
Costs to Families
1) over $1,500 per year for buying tobacco products
2) lost wages due to illness
3) medical bills
4) funeral costs
Costs to Society
1) about $167 billion per year in financial costs due to smoking
2) high number of accidental fires started by careless smokers
3) number of premature deaths caused by tobacco use each year: 438,000
4) percentage of movies released in 2006 in which cigarettes appeared: 52%
5) percentage of society that does not smoke: 79%
Tobacco and the Law
1) selling tobacco to anyone under 18 years of age is illegal
2) teens may be fined or assigned community service if they are caught using tobacco
Reasons to Quit Smoking
1) smoking is unhealthy
2) smoking is expensive
3) smoking stinks
4) smoking looks unattractive
5) smoking damages your skin
How to Quite Smoking
1) get started
2) change your habits
3) set goals
4) get support
Refusing Effectively
1) be honest
2) give a reason
3) suggest an alternative
Benefits of Being Tobacco Free
1) getting fewer colds, sore throats, and asthma attacks
2) not coughing if they're not sick
3) being less likely to have stained teeth, bad breath, or chronic gum disease
4) being able to taste their food and smell flowers
5) not smelling like smoke all the time
6) not exposing loved ones to the harmful chemicals in smoke
7) not having black bits of tobacco in their teeth
8) not having to carry around a cup of brown spit
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
drug withdrawal that occurs in newborn infants whose mothers were frequent drug users during pregnancy
Recovering
the process of learning to live without drugs
Intervention
confronting a drug user about his or her drug abuse problem to stop him or her from using drugs
Relapse
a return to using drugs while trying to recover from drug addiction
Risks of Drug Use
1) car accidents
2) accidental injury or death
3) violence and other criminal activity
4) unplanned pregnancy
5) sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
Drug Abuse and Crime
1) many abused drugs are illegal
2) possession of illegal drugs or the supplies for making them can put you in prison
3) many illegal drug users will steal or sell drugs to get money to buy their drugs
4) making and selling illegal drugs is a crime that can result in many years of prison time
5) between 2/3 and 3/4 of people arrested for violent crimes were on drugs when their crimes were committed (some don't even remember committing their crime)
Signs of Drug Use
1) has unusual emotional reactions to situations
2) withdraws from family intimacy and activities
3) repeatedly breaks household or school rules
4) hangs out with different friends
5) starts to dress differently
Statistics
1) percentage of people who say drug abuse has caused a problem in their family: 21%
2) percentage of child abuse and neglect cases linked to drug abuse: 60-80%
3) percentage of domestic violence that is drug related: 43%
4) percentage of pregnant women who use drugs regularly: 3.9%
Drug Abuse Affects the Family
1) trust
2) violence
3) pregnancy
Drug Abuse Affects Society
1) economics
2) crime
Drug Abuse Affects Everyone
1) physical, mental, and emotional injuries from drug-related domestic violence
2) health problems in babies born to mothers who abused drugs
3) injury resulting from drug-related car accidents
4) loss of job productivity resulting from drug use
5) diseases caused by drug abuse
Treatment for Drug Addiction (1)
1) no single treatment works for everyone
2) treatment should be available and easy to access
3) the best treatment addresses other problems that the abuser has, not just the drug addiction
4) treatment should offer multiple services, including medical services, family counseling, job training, and legal services
5) the longer an abuser stays in treatment, the more effective it is
Treatment for Drug Addiction (2)
6) group therapy is useful for building skills for resisting drug use and developing interpersonal relationships that do not involve drugs
7) medications can be an important part of treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting synthetic opiate used to treat heroin addiction
8) mental illness should be treated at the same time as addiction
Treatment for Drug Addiction (3)
9) treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.
Intervention involves confronting a drug user about his or her
problem to stop him or her from using drugs. Family and friends often have to intervene to get someone to seek treatment for drug addiction
10) patients should be monitored for continued drug use
Treatment for Drug Addiction (4)
11) treatment programs should test for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and other infectious diseases
12) recovery from addiction may require several periods of treatment to combat relapse. Relapse is a return to using drugs while trying to recover from drug addiction
Saying No to Drugs
1) say no firmly
2) buy yourself time
3) give good reasons why you choose not to do drugs
4) state the consequences that could result if you do use drugs
5) if necessary, say no again and include an alternate activity
6) walk away