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29 terms

Internal Organization: Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Cerebrum

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Two functions of the cerebellum
1. To coordinate muscle groups for complex motor activity
2. Works closely with vestibular system to coordinate movements of the head with the rest of the body
key term for cerebellum
coordination/incoordination
What are the two motor editors?
1. Cerebellum
2. Basal Ganglia
cerebellar peduncles
pathway in/out of cerebellum; communication
Three types of information received by the cerebellum
1. Proprioceptive
2. Vestibular
3. Cortical Motor Planning
Proprioceptive information
in through the inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles
vestibular information
in through the inferior cerebellar peduncles
cortical motor planning information
in through the inferior and middle cerebral peduncles
Information flow through cerebellum
1. info goes straight into CEREBELLAR CORTEX
2. DEEP NUCLEI w/in arbor vitae
3. By way of the THALAMUS, to CEREBRAL CORTEX
4. PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
- Final decision here and message sent out
Damage to cerebellum
- incoordination
- may see difference in gait (usually wider-based to help keep balance)
Thalamus
within the diencephalon; made up of nuclei that mostly process incoming sensory information
Medial Geniculate Body
houses the Auditory nucleus
receiving auditory information
Lateral Geniculate Body
house the Visual nucleus
receiving visual information
Ventral Posterior Lateral
VPL
Somatosensory information
Ventral Posterior Medial
VPM
somatosensory information
taste
Anterior nucleus
limbic system; emotions
Dorsomedial nucleus
limbic system; emotions
Anterior nucleus and Dorsomedial nucleus
Are connected by axons to other parts of the limbic system - including the mammillary bodies, septal region, and cingulate gyrus
Ventral Anterior Nucleus
VA
receiving information from cerebellum and basal ganglia and sends info through thalamus before going to cortex
Ventral Lateral Nucleus
VL
receiving information from cerebellum and basal ganglia and sends info through thalamus before going to cortex
Intralaminar nuclei
receiving information from reticular system
Internal Capsule
- Two way pathway between the thalamus and cerebral cortex
Importance of internal capsule
allows senses to be informed by a higher authority; can tell you whether incoming information is important enough to pay attention to
Two types of cortex
neocortex and allocortex
cortex
covering the surface of the entire cerebrum; cell bodies; into every sulcus, groove, fissure
neocortex
a. means "new cortex"; newer in terms of evolution
b. Humans have more than other organisms
c. 6 layers of cell bodies
i. These cell bodies are arranged neatly into vertical columns. (As a baby's brain develops, it does some from the inside out, which produces this neat, structured arrangement)
d. More sophisticated part
allocortex
a. Older cortex
b. 3 layers of cell bodies
c. Cingulate Gyrus, Septal Region, Hippocampus, Parahippocampal are all allocortex areas
d. All allocortex areas are part of the limbic lobe (system)
hippocampus
Doesn't see "the light of day"; hidden; inside temporal lobe; bulges into lateral ventricle that serves temporal lobe
parahippocampal
continuation of the cingulate gyrus