64 terms

Chapter 9 - Political Parties

From American Government, 10th edition
Political Party
A group that seeks to elect candidates to public office.
1 of 3 political arenas within which a party may be found. A party exists as a(n) ___________ that recruits and campaigns for candidates.
1 of 3 political arenas within which a party may be found. A party exists as a(n) ___________ in the minds of voters.
Set of Leaders
1 of 3 political arenas within which a party may be found. A party exists as a(n) ___________ who try to organize and control the legislative and executive branches of government.
Four Broad Periods of Party History
1) When political parties were created (the Founding-1820s)
2) When the more or less stable two-party system emerged (time of president Jackson - Civil War)
3) When parties developed a comprehensive organizational form and appeal (Civil War - 1930s)
4) When party "reform" began to alter the party system (beginning early 1900s but taking effect since the New Deal)
(Jeffersonian) Republicans
The first organized political party in America, beginning in the 1790s.
One of the first two American political parties, instead of comprising of followers of Jefferson, this comprised of followers of Hamilton.
Because it was the first, nobody was born into a party, so there was no ancestral party loyalty to defend
What was the weakness of the first party system? (Republican v. Federalist)
Political participation became a mass phenomenon
The distinctive feature of the "second party system," which began around 1824 with Jackson's first presidential run was that...
Popular vote; state legislatures
By 1832, most presidential electors were selected by __________ instead of ___________.
Anti-Masonic Party
In replacing the caucus system, the party convention system was invented. The first convention in American history was that of the __________ in 1831
anti-Jackson Republicans
The first convention of a /major/ political party was that of the ___________, which nominated Henry Clay for president.
Martin Van Buren
The first convention to select a man who would be elected president and who was not already the incumbent president, held by the Democrats in 1836, chose _______________.
Democrats; Whigs
The two central parties in the "second party system" were the ___________ and the ____________, which respectively supported and opposed Jackson.
(Modern) Republicans
The third party that phased out the Whigs was the _________.
Mugwumps or Progressives (or "reformers")
Republican party faction of the 1890s to the 1910s, composed of reformers who opposed patronage (special jobs and favors granted simply for being a faithful follower).
Party Regulars
This was one of the two major factions within each of the Democrat/Republican parties (mostly Republican), which comprised the professional politicians, the "stalwarts," the Old Guard. These people were preoccupied with building up party machinery, developing party loyalty, and acquiring and dispensing patronage (jobs and other favors) for themselves and their faithful followers.
Republican; Democrat
Around the time that the Republicans phased out the Whigs, the North was predominantly ____________ and the South was predominantly __________.
Primary Elections
Progressives supported _____________ to replace nominating conventions.
Critical or Realignment Period
Periods when a major, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties.
The five realignment periods
1) 1800 (when Jeffersonian Republicans defeated the Federalists)
2) 1828 (when the Jacksonian Democrats came to power)
3) 1860 ( when the Whig party collapsed and the Republicans under Lincoln came to power)
4) 1896 (when the Republicans defeated William Jennings Bryan)
5) 1932 (when the Democrats under Roosevelt came to office)
Two Kinds of Realignments
1) One in which a major party is so badly defeated that it disappears and a new party emerges to take its place (as with the Federalists and Whigs).
2) One in which the two existing parties continue but voters shift their support from one to the other.
Split Ticket
Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election. The increasing proportion of people voting like this is evidence of party decline.
Straight Ticket
Voting for candidates who are all of the same party.
Office-bloc Ballot
A ballot listing all candidates of a given office under the name of that office; also called a "Massachusetts" ballot.
Party-column Ballot
A ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of that party; also called an "Indiana" ballot.
National Convention
A meting of party delegates held every four years.
National Committee
Delegates who run party affairs between national conventions.
Congressional Campaign Committee
A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would-be members.
National Chairman
Day-to-day party manager elected by the national committee.
bureaucratized; factionalized
In the 20th century, the Republican party became ____________ (an efficient, united force) and the Democratic party became ___________ (a collection of warring groups).
Soft Money
Funds to aid parties (and their ads and polls).
George McGovern
Beginning in 1972, Democrats have developed an elaborate set of rules designed to weaken the control over delegates by local party leaders and to increase the proportion of women, young people,
African Americans, and Native Americans attending the convention. These rules were first drafted by a party commission chaired by Senator ____________. These rules were reformed 4 times by 4 different people up until 1984.
.Equal division of delegates between men and women
.Establishment of "goals" for the representation of African Americans, Hispanics, and other groups in proportion to their presence in a state's Democratic electorate
.Open delegate selection procedures, with advance publicity and written rules
.Selection of 75% of the delegates at the level of the congressional district or lower
.No "unit rule" that would require all delegates to vote with the majority of their states delegation
. Restrictions on the number of party leaders and elected officials who could vote at the convention
. A requirement that all delegates pledged to a candidate vote for that candidate
Rules for the 1980 Democratic convention to create intraparty democracy as well as interparty democracy required (7 items):
Party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses.
special-interest caucuses
In the 1980s, the official status of some ____________ (like those representing black or gay people) was reduced in order to lessen the perception that the Democrats were simply a party of factions.
First time incumbent governors were nominated for president
Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio by Republicans in 1876. Samuel J. Tilden of New York, by Democrats in 1876.
First African American to receive a vote at a national party convention
Frederick Douglass, at republican convention in 1888.
First year in which women attended conventions as delegates
1900 (one woman at both Democratic and Republican conventions).
Most ballots needed to choose a presidential nominee
103, by Democrats in 1924 to select John W. Davis
Closest vote in convention history
543&3/20 to 542&7/20, defeating a motion to condemn the Ku Klux Klan at 1924 Democratic convention
First Catholic nominated for president by a major party
Al Smith, by Democrats in 1928
Only person nominated for president four times by a major political party
Franklin D. Roosevelt, by Democrats in 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944
Franklin D. Roosevelt
First presidential nominee to make an acceptance speech at the party convention
Three rules changed for the 1992 Democratic campaign
1) The winner-reward system of delegate distribution (gave the winner of a primary/caucus extra delegates) was banned
2)The proportional representation system (divides a state's publicly elected delegates among candidates who receive at least 15% of the vote) was put into use
3) States that violate the rules are now penalized with the loss of 25% of their national convention delegates
Political Machine
A party organization that recruits members by dispensing patronage.
The Hatch Act
Passed by Congress in 1939, this act made it illegal for federal civil service employees to take an active part in political management or political campaigns by serving as party officers, soliciting campaign funds, running for partisan office, working in a partisan campaign, endorsing partisan candidates, taking voters to the polls, counting ballots, circulating nomimating petitions, or being delegates to a party conventions (they may still vote and make campaign contributions).
New-style political machines
Unlike their predecessors, these use campaign funds to build loyalties to it among a variety of elected officials at all levels of government. They also have a strong interest in issues, especially at the national level. One example is the "Waxman-Berman organization."
Ideological Party
A party that values principled stands on issues above all else. This opposed the machine, which values winning above all else.
Social movements of ideological activists
As a result of ___________ taking the place of political machines, internal factionalism is more intense, and the freedom of action of the party leader has been greatly reduced.
Solidary Incentives
The social rewards (sense of pleasure, status, or companionship) that lead people to join political organizations.
Sponsored Party
A local or state political party that is largely supported by another organization in the community. An example is the Democratic Party in Detroit, supported by the political-action arm of the United Auto Workers union (UAW).
Personal Following
the political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks.
Two-party system
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.
Plurality System
An electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections.
One-issue parties
Parties seeking a single policy, usually revealed by their names, and avoiding other issues. Examples include the Free-soil party (to prevent the spread of slavery), the Prohibition party, and the Marijuana party.
Economic-protest parties
Parties, usually based in a particular region, especially involving farmers, that protest against depressed economic conditions. these tend to disappear as conditions improve. Examples include the Populist Party and the Greenback Party.
Factional Parties
Parties that are created by a split in a major party, usually over the identity and philosophy of the major party's presidential candidate.
Reform Party
In 1992 and again in 1996, Ross Perot led the most successful recent third-party movement, which began as "United We Stand America" and was later renamed the _________.
Party delegates tend to have opinions __________(similar/opposed) to those of most members of their party.
Because they are chosen in caucuses and primary elections whose participants are unrepresentative of said group
Why might many delegates be unrepresentative of the party rank and file?
Before this year, most delegates were picked by party leaders. After it, most were selected in primaries and caucuses.
A meeting of party members to select delegates backing one or another primary candidate.
Issue-Oriented Activists
As opposed to delegates of the past, today's delegates are more often __________________.