Intro to Organ Systems and Digestion
Essential vocab for understanding animal body systems with a focus on digestion.
Terms in this set (62)
Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
group of tissues that work together to perform closely realated functions
a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body. Contains amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, hormones, neurotransmitters, an salts.
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
A physiological control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
the total amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time. It is measured in calories or kilocalories.
organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
referring to an animal whose body temperature is determined by the temperature of the environment
basal metabolic rate
the rate at which you use energy when your body is completely at rest
standard metabolic rate
The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, and nonstressed ectotherm.
substances the body requires for normal growth and health but cannot manufacture in sufficient amounts: they must be obtained int he diet.
organic nutrients needed in small quantities for growth, regulating body functions, and preventing some diseases
simple inorganic nutrients the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
vitamins, specifically vitamin C or one of the B complex vitamins, that dissolves in water, and is not stored in the body
vitamins absorbed with fats, stored in adipose tissue and liver, can cause hypervitaminosis; A, D, E, K
organism that obtains energy by eating grass and other plants
organism that obtains energy by eating animals
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
an aquatic animal, such as a sponge, clam, or baleen whale, that feeds by sifting small food particles from the water
an organism that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food (maggot, earthworm)
an animal that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organism (mosquito, leech)
an animal that eats relatively large pieces of food (snake, tiger, human)
process of taking in food
the process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules (mechanical and/or chemical)
the process in digestion in which bonds are broken with the enzymatic addition of water
the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion
the passing of undigested material out of the digestive compartment
the joining of food vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell
a digestive cavity with only one opening; found in simple animals (hydras, flatworms)
complete digestive tract
a digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called an alimentary canal
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
ringlike valves of muscular layer of the digestive tube that close off the tube like drawstrings, regulating the passage of material between chambers of the canal
glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
organ that makes bile to break down fats; filters poisons and drugs out of the blood; stores excess glucose as glycogen
the organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver
a term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
a finger-like cartiliganous flap that moves down to block passage of the trachea when food is swallowed to ensure food goes down the esophagus to the stomach and not to the lungs
muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
muscular sac that churns food and secretes hydrochloric acid to start breaking down proteins
a liquid produced in the stomach that contains mucus, pepsin, and hydrochloric acid
An enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins
inactive form of pepsin released in stomach, reacts with HCl to create pepsin
mixture of recently swallowed food and gastric juice
controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine
organ that completes the chemical digestion of food and absorbs the nutrients
a substance produced by the liver that aids in the digestion and absorption of fats
a salivary gland enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into maltose/glucose
space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within the stomach, small instestine, or a blood vessel
an enzyme that hydrolyzes DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides.
an enzyme secreted in the lumen of the small intestine that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
process by which fat globules are broken into smaller droplets, by the action of bile salts, increasing surface area available for digestion
tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed
tiny, hairlike projections on each villus; trap nutrients and transport them into cells
hepatic portal vessel
capillaries and veins that drain the nutrients away from the villi (small instestine) and lead to the liver so that the liver has first access to amino acids and the sugars in order to regulate the level of these molecules in the blood
organ of the digestive system where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
herbivores such as cows, sheep, and deer with digestive chambers in which symbitoic microorganism digest plant (cellulose) matter into molecules that can be absorbed by the host