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satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability


an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another



Caste System

a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society

Concentration Camp

a camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions


a Spanish conqueror of the Americas


a series of military expeditions by Christian Europe to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims


an absolute ruler


a limit or reduction in armed forces or weapons


a person who speaks out against the regime in power

Divine Right of Kings

the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God


a family line of rulers who's right to rule is passed on within the family


a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service


pertaining to Greek language and culture


thoughts and ideas that are contrary to the teachings of the Christian faith


a sophisticated system of writing based on pictures

Magna Carta

a written code that limited the power of the English monarchy for the first time; also called the Great Charter

Middle Passage

the middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas


the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols

Natural Rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property


people who move from place to place following animal migrations and vegetation cycles


ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause


a period in European history of the rebirth of learning based on the knowledge of ancient Roman and Greek learning; mainly in art, philosophy, invention, exploration and religious reform


payment made to the victor by the vanquished to cover the costs of a war


of or relating to people who live in the country


a viewpoint void of religious thought or considerations

Social Contract

the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will


a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production


a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens


of or located in the city

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