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Ch. 13 Reproductive Systems and STIs Final Chapter Review
Terms in this set (27)
used to examine or inspect cervix vault and vaginal walls
visual examination of the rectum and anus
Dark-field Microscopy Surface Scarification
using a metal or cotton swab to quickly collect a tissue specimen
*etiologic agent is is the trepomena pallidum spirochete bacteria spread through direct contact, usually from exudative genital lesions
Primary stage: incubation is first 21 to 35 days (9 to 90) before the hard chancre appears. Starts as small and painless red pustules at site of infection. This lesion erodes, forming a painless, bloodless sore called a "primary chancre." It heals in 10 to 40 days.
Secondary stage: beings at about 3 weeks to 6 months (up to 2 years). Headaches, malaise, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, mouth ulcers, anorexia, nausea, condylomata lata papules in moist areas, along with general body aches and pains.
Tertiary Stage: bacteria attack CNS, leading to paralysis and insanity. Gum-like lesions may appear on skin or in later stages on inner body structures.
*treatment is usually penicillin antibiotics
*highly communicable: primary and secondary stages
*FTA and VDRL tests used for diagnosis
1. After incubation (21 to 35 days) the red macules and painless red papules erode and becomes a round, red, painless, clean lesion 2 cm in size called a chancre. It heals in 10 to 40 days.
2. Firm base with edema in adjacent tissues.
3. Bacteria later reach regional lymph nodes and form large and tender buboes (bulb-like lesions).
*usually appears 3 to 26 weeks after infection (21 days to 2 years).
*later stages show ulcers of mucous membranes or enlarged lymph nodes.
*lesions are usually maculopapular, roselar, as well as pustular 5 to 15 mm in size.
*signs and symptoms include hoarseness, bone pain, adenitis, hepatitis, alopecia, oral mucous patches, leucoderma, joint lesions, organ lesions, genital-perianal mucous patches, and possible deafness
*a/symptom/atic lesions are usually seen for 1 to 3 months, but they may appear for up to 24 months (2 years).
1. Gummas are soft tumors seen in late tertiary syphilis.
2. These necrotic fibrous lesion masses are surrounded by an inflammatory zone. Lesions are usually painless and slow healing.
3. Gumma sores are seen on eyes, liver, lungs, stomach, skin, brain, heart, bones, joints, and reproductive organs.
4. They vary in size from mm to cm. These sores may burst.
1. Communicable catarrhal mucous membrane inflammation of reproductive system (often involves eyes and mouth).
2. Etiology is Neisseria gonococcus bacteria
3. If untreated it can affect heart, joints, and mucous membranes. It can cause sterility and inflammation of tissues that form coverings on body, such as conjuctiva.
4. In males there is usually a yellow muco/purulent discharge from urethra. Prostate and urethra are affected causing dys/uria (faulty and painful urination).
5. May be asymptomatic in both sexes.
6. Infected site should be cultured after 2 weeks of treatment with penicillin.
7. In females it can cause discharge, lower abdominal pain, and tenderness.
8. Acute pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) and sterilization may be seen.
9. May cause inflammation of prostate, testes, or bladder and may cause ophthalm/ia neo/nator/um.
sore/resembles - "syphilitic sores"
1. Highly infectious venereal ulcer. Bacterial cause.
2. Incubation is 3 to 5 days. It begins with a pustule or ulcer, and later develops into multiple ulcers that can cause scarring.
3. Lesion has a yellow exudate and also a rough, that rough floor with abrupt edges that are sensitive or inflamed.
4. Treatment is antibiotics.
5. Usually seen in warm climates in individuals who have poor hygiene. Highly infectious and rare in women.
6. Incubation is 3 to 5 days (2 to 10).
7. Beings with painful vesicular papules that progresses to ulcers with bright red areola and shelf-like margins. Ulcers are irregular or round with single or multiple lesions, 3 to 20 mm in size.
8. Ulcers usually occur when intercourse causes trauma.
9. Lymph nodes enlarge in inguinal area, forming buboes in 7 to 14 days. Lesions become centrally softened, and rupture occurs with discharge through a fistula (pipe-like tube).
10. Diagnosis made from bubo pus.
1. Glandular swellings or growths of lymphoid or epitheloid cells in the groin area.
2. Similar granuloma lesions seen in yaws, leprosy, and syphilis.
3. Bacteria (rod-shaped) Donovan bodies can be seen in causative organism Klebsiella granulomatis.
4. Treatment: Doxycycline or alternative antibiotics.
5. Chronic slowly progressive ulcerative non-fatal infection of genital and adjacent tissue.
6. Early lesions are nodules, vesicles, or papules that spread and form large granulomas that ulcerate or erode, and form a beefy red granular base. It often progresses to total genital destruction, and granular lesions usually cause significant scarring.
7. Incubation is usually 10 to 40 days (3 to 90).
8. Lesions are usually on penis, labia, perineum, and extend under skin to groin.
9. Subcutaneous abscesses occur and become secondarily infected and show neo/plastic change.
1. Etiologic agents are red sphere bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (cloak: rough). They are specialized intracellular parasitic bacteria that are often found in eye, cervix, and urethra. Chlamydia are a special type of bacteria that resemble larger bacteria or rickettsia.
2. In LGI the vesicles look similar to herpes lesions and develop in 7 to 12 days.
3. They rupture and heal painlessly. Within the next two months, regional lymph nodes enlarge, become tender and may suppurate (generate pus).
4. Tx is usually Tetracycline and Streptomycin.
5. The healed lymph glands leave scars that often obstruct lymph flow or obstruct rectum.
6. D.D. is made between LGV and herpes, chancroid, filariasis, syphilis, donovanosis, and "cat scratch fever."
7. Primary lesions are papules and ulcers.
8. Secondary lesions are called buboes, which are swollen lymph glands in groin. They appear after primary lesions disappear. They are first seen in 3 to 4 weeks. These enlarged lymph glands are matted and appear above and below the groin. These nodes are painful, soft, and buboes may have a fistula.
9. It is suppurative and drains site of highly infectious materials. Buboes are seen with disease bubonic plague.
10. LGV may be found in sub/tropical or tropical areas and in immigrants from throughout world.
11. Chlamydia trachomatis agents includes Type 1, 2, 3. The variants usually cause non-gonococcal urethritis.
12. LGI by blocking lymph vessel causes edema, which may lead to elephantiasis.
13. Ano/rectal stenosis is present.
1. This STI is also referred to as "trich or trichomonas."
2. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic flagellate protozoa infestation.
3. Species that produces attacks on mucous membranes and causes a profuse frothy, pale yellow to green discharge, and a fish odor. It causes persistent burning and itching of vulvar tissue.
4. Common in women, especially during pregnancy, or after vaginal surgery. It is transmitted from urine, vagina, and from urethra during intercourse.
5. Males are a/symptom/atic carriers and simultaneous partner treatment is required.
6. Treatment: Flagyl taken orally by both parties.
7. This trichomonas hominis species is found in intestines and causes diarrhea and dysentery.
8. Trichomonas tenax species is a benign form found in our mouths.
genital herpes (HSV-II)
1. Smaller multiple blister-like shingle vesicle crops.
2. Intercourse and giving birth spreads this STD.
3. Genital herpes (to creep) can be found in mouth because of oral sex.
4. Incubation is usually 1-3 weeks (3 to 21 days) and blister lesions usually last 7 to 10 days.
5. Communicability is from exudate (to sweat out).
6. Recovery: from 7 to 35 days (1 to 5 weeks).
7. Prevention: condoms. Additional outbreaks: consume non-acidic food and drinks, consume lysine, and avoid stress.
genital herpes (oral) (herpes simplex virus: HSV II)
1. Both oral herpes simplex I virus and genital herpes simplex type II virus can cause genital lesions. Frequency of outbreaks lessens with age.
2. Both can cause genital ulceration transmitted by accident or sexually. Recurrent lesions usually cause pain, edema, erythema, and erosion.
3. Incubation can be 3 to 7 days.
4. Tiny papules and vesicles are painful, clear, or yellowish. Surface erodes
5. Healing takes place in 7 days.
6. Secondary bacterial infections often develop.
7. Some cases show a moderate to a large number of blisters, with painful enlarged inguinal lymph nodes.
8. Can occur on skin or body membranes.
9. Recurrent lesion usually are less painful.
10. Grows in body tissues and cultures with considerable variation in appearance and size.
candid/iasis and lichen planus
glowing white "yeast-like fungus"/state
1. Glowing white budding unicellular yeast infection.
2. Lichen planus includes more than 15 human nonmalignant, chronic pruritic skin diseases that are of unknown causes. These plant-like papule lesions are usually purplish to white skin plaques or lacy fine grey lines.
3. Treatment is pruritis ointments for both conditions - corticosteroids (topical or intralesional) to relieve itching.
genital warts (HPV)
1. Common on genitalia and transmitted by sexual contact.
2. Cervical intra/epithelial neo/plasms, the penile, the vulvar, and the anal can develop into "invasive tissue carcinoma."
3. Bleeding and discharge can occur, but usually a/symptom/atic.
4. Secondary infection causes odor, irritation, and discomfort.
5. Warts start as small papillo/mata (nipple/many) and multiply.
6. Seen on glans penis, foreskin, and urethral urinary tract opening (meatus).
1. Wart like growths on the genitals. 2 types: pointed or broad and flat, often with grey exudate and delimited areas.
2. Usually pink or red, small, soft, pedunculated swellings. They are usually solitary, cauliflower-like groups that are caused by human papill/oma virus.
3. The warts can vary in appearance and in body location.
soft: to touch
1. Soft viral warts of skin and mucous membranes caused by a pox virus (pit/poison).
2. Direct contact viral infection is usually seen on penis, penis shaft, mons, and pubis of young people.
3. Incubation period is about 2 to 8 weeks. Spontaneous in children and disappear in months.
4. Lesions are small, scattered or regional, single or multiple, raised or flat, soft or slightly firm, smooth, waxy, umbilicated, hemi/spherical, shiny, flesh-toned or white papules.
5. These warts occur anywhere on body except palms and feet.
6. Occasionally erythematous from excor/iation (skin abrasion).
7. Warts are usually about 1 mm in size (occasionally up to 10 mm).
8. Lesions are a/symptomatic or slightly irritable and are easily cured.
9. Numerous in AIDS patients.
difficult to determine
1. Chlamydia is suspected of causing over 50% of this non-gonococcal urethritis.
2. One of the most common forms of STI, affecting over 4 million people annually in U.S.
3. Urethr/itis is often caused and spread by proteus mirabilis rod-shaped bacteria with its small hairs.
4. It causes dys/uria (painful and difficult urination) and is usually associated with a bladder or kidney infection.
5. Treatment is to culture tissue samples and give specific antibiotic, analgesic, and urinary antiseptic drugs.
1. Scabies mite is often transmitted during sexual activity.
2. Life is about 3 weeks
3. After hatching in a burrow, larvae migrate to skin pocket and molt several times.
4. Reach maturity in 14 days.
5. Mature in stratum corneum or epidermis and move 2 to 3 mm per day.
6. Female lays 3 eggs daily. They hatch within 2 to 3 days.
7. Site may ex/coriate, and secondary infection often appears. Eczematous changes are also common on skin.
8. Diagnosis based on history, findings, or from extracting mite from burrow.
9. Pediculosis pubis and corpus are located in integumentary system.
glans penis or clitoris/inflamed
*balanos - glans penis, clitoris, or glans
*phallos - penis or organ of copulation
1. Inflammation of mucous membrane of penis or female clitoris.
2. Infection often affects male foreskin and creates a purulent discharge.
3. Usually caused by smegma (soap) that is secreted by tissue covering glans penis or by bacteria.
4. Infants develop pan/balanitis (all/glans penis/inflamed) including ulcers of corona and prepuce.
*smegma - soap
*balanos - penis or clitoris
1. Secretion of sebaceous glands, especially cheesy, foul-smelling secretion sometimes found under foreskin of penis and at base of labia minora near glans clitoris.
2. Edema (swelling) of glans penis showing mesh underwear pattern.
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