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Alevel history Civil Rights (OCR)
Terms in this set (298)
when was the 'new deal'?
Plessy v. Ferguson
23rd Jan 1964 (ruled that the rights to vote shouldn't be prevented by failure to pay poll tax)
101 airborne division sent to Little Rock
1st civil rights act
Assassination of Kennedy
22nd Nov 1963
April 14, 1865
executive order 8587
March on Washington
Murder of Emmett Till
Jesse Jackson stood as democratic presidential candidate
Jackson's seconds campaign as presidential candidate
Black Panthers formed
Bus boycott in Montgomery
2nd Civil Rights Act
desegregation of armed forces
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education
Murder of Medgar Evers
12th June 1962
Niagara Movement formed
Marcus Garvey founds the Black Star line
W.E.B. DuBois publishes 'The Souls of Black Folk'
Martin Luther King jr is assassinated
Malcolm X breaks from NOI
'The Birth of a Nation' causes the KKK to reform
Black Panther salute demonstrated at the olympics
KKK forms in Tennessee
Formation of the SCLC by Martin Luther King
End of the civil war
United states vs Harris (1883) ruling
Held that private discrimination did not fall under federal jurisdiction
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) ruling
Separation of Black and white people didn't mean that black people were inferior.
Established the 'separate but equal' principle
Wilkins vs Mississippi (1898) ruling
Discriminatory voter registration laws were not unconstitutional as there was no mention of race in the laws
Swann vs. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) ruling
Approved plans for enforcing desegregation by busing white children into areas with more black children.
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education (1954) ruling
Ruled that the segregation of schools was illegal and children should go to the closest school
Alexander vs. Holmes (1969) ruling
Sped up the desegregation of schools
Griggs vs. Duke Power Company (1971) ruling
protected African-Americans from firms who insisted on a diploma for certain jobs
Boynton vs Virginia (1960) ruling
Ruled that segregation on interstate transport was illegal.
This began the freedom rides
Smith vs. Allwright (1944) ruling
Ruled it was unconstitutional to exclude black voters from party primary voting
2 parts of US congress
Senate and House of Representatives
Name the title of the main political figure in each state
When did the civil war end?
April 9, 1865
Which amendment finally freed slaves?
What was the name for former slaves who were allowed to work land in exchange for a big share of what they produced?
Who became president after Lincoln?
Which federal institution was set up in 1865 to help freed slaves?
Freedmen's Bureau (encouraged by Stevens and Summer)
What did the first Reconstruction act of 1867 split the former confederate states into?
5 military districts
From 1867-77 how many Black congressmen were there for each state?
8 for South Carolina
4 for Mississippi
3 for Alabama
1 for Georgia
Who became president after the really important compromise made in 1877?
Rutherford B Hayes
What did the discriminatory measures passed in the south become known as?
Jim Crow laws
Name 3 methods used to stop black men voting
What is the name for the illegal killing of someone by a mob?
In which ruling did the court declare discriminatory voter registration laws were illegal?
Wilkins vs MIssissippi
In what year was the Plessy vs Ferguson ruling?
Which principle did Plessy vs Ferguson put into place?
Separate but equal
in what year was the Brown vs Topeka Board of Education ruling?
Which Supreme court ruling gave rise to the freedom rides in 1961?
Boynton vs Virginia
Which power company was found to have a discriminatory employment policy in 1971?
Which president was a white supremacist?
Woodrow Wilson (1913-21)
Who pressurised Roosevelt into including an anti-discriminatory statement into the CCC?
Oscar de Priest
Who threatened Roosevelt with a 100,000-strong March on Washington if he did not end segregation for soldiers and munition workers.
Which president ended discrimination in the military?
Where did Eisenhower send troops of the 101st airborne?
Little Rock High School
The court that ruled over all the federal states in the USA
One of the major parties.
The party that was pro-slavery
Chief officer for each state
Head of state and head of government
Who became president after Andrew Johnson?
Which ruling in 1883 said the 1875 civil rights act was unconstitutional?
Harris vs US
In which state did Homer Plessy challenge the separate railroad cars?
In _____________________ vs Holmes in 1969 the court said school desegregation needed to be quicker
What does CCC stand for?
Civilian Conservation Corps
How many students were escorted into little rock high school?
Name the black student who was photographed being verbally abused by a white crowd
What did Lyndon Johnson wish to create with his package of reforms?
A great society
In which city did the Watts riots take place?
In what year did the Watts riots occur?
Whose beating by police officers was filmed and led to riots in 1991?
What was the name of Nixon's approach where positive actions were taken to help African-Americans secure jobs and promotions?
In which city did Booker T Washington agree to compromise with white rule?
Which industrialist gave Booker T Washington $600,000 in bonds?
Which organisation was set up by Marcus Garvey?
UNIA (universal negro improvement association)
Which civil rights leader first saw the value of mass peaceful demonstrations?
Who was the police chief of Birmingham, Alabama who treated the peaceful protesters with violence?
In which city were protesters attacked as they tried to cross a bridge?
The mass march on Washington was for jobs and _________?
Who led the Nation of Islam from 1934 to 1975?
Which journey contributed to Malcolm X softening his tactics?
Which general set up the KKK?
Nathan Bedford Forest
What did George Wallace and Orval Faubus have in common?
Where did Martin Luther King write a letter from which gained great publicity?
Who made the comment 'what we need is black power'?
Who formed the Nation of Islam?
Wallace Fard Muhammad
What was a name given to black Americans who cooperated with whites?
Which lawyer successfully fought the Brown vs Topeka board of education ruling?
What institution was set up by Booker T Washington?
knights of Labor founded
Molly Maguires formed
American Federation of Labor founded
Sherman Antitrust Act
Lochner vs New York case
Clayton Antitrust Act
brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids established
NIRA (National Industrial Recovery Act) passed
wagner act passed
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) began
merger of the AFL and CIO
Occupational safety and health act
Industrial Workers of the World founded
Wall Street Crash
BSCP gain recognition
Fair Labor Standards Act
Steel Workers' Organising Committee became recognised by US Steel
Equal Pay Act
Civil Rights Act
Agricultural Workers' Organising Committee and the National Farm Workers' Association join to form the United Farm Workers' Union
Salad Bowl Strike
1970s (1st in 1970)
California Agricultural Relations Board established
Coppage v. Kansas
Adkins vs. Children's hospital
Economic Opportunity Act
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
Women's Trade Union League established
Fire at Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
A term used to describe a factory or workplace that is dominated by one trade union and where all workers are obliged to belong to that union
This is where workers were allowed to join any union or not join a union at all
This allowed workers to be employed when needed but laid off during quiet periods
When the economy is in decline, and demands for goods is low. Results in increased unemployment and lower wages
Where a dispute between workers and employers is discussed and resolved in the presence of a neutral third party
Where a dispute is settled through finding an outcome that is acceptable to both sides
The belief that there should be no government interference in the organisation and operation of business
The legal process of settling disputes between employees. This involves hearings taking place and a neutral 'referee' resolves the situation
Where employees' representatives join together to discuss issues such as wages and working conditions.
the exclusion of employees by their employer from their place of work until certain terms are agreed to.
Workers who are willing to go into work during a strike
Workers standing outside their work to discourage others entering the business
A list of people who tried to organise a union or strike and were considered troublemakers by employers
yellow dog contract
an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union.
Contract stipulation in which union agrees not to strike during the duration of the contract.
Workers who are willing to work while others are on strike, thus making the strike ineffectual.
wild cat strike
A strike undertaken by workers without the agreement of their union
Impact of the national war labour board
Limited working hours to 8, but workers had to agree to a No-strike policy
A policy followed by employers that offered workers better working conditions and benefits like pensions, in return for Unions being under the control of the employer
Who led the BSCP Union?
What did the NIRA act do?
Encouraged firms to agree to codes of practice which dealt with improving hours, wage rates and union rights
How did the Wagner act benefit workers?
Established the national labor relations board
Workers were given the right to elect their own representatives and to undertake collective bargaining
What did the Fair Labor standards act do?
established a minimum wage
How many members of unions were there by the end of WWII?
Nearly 15 million
What did the Taft-Hartley Act do?
outlawed closed shop laws, therfore limiting Union power
Why did union membership decline after WWII?
Many new jobs were in the government, where workers were forced to sign a No-strike agreement
What did the equal pay act do?
outlawed paying men more than women for the same job
What did the civil rights act of 1964 do?
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
What did Cesar Chavez do?
Founded the national Farm workers' association
Forced growers to recognise the UFW Union
What was the salad bowl strike?
A strike encouraging the boycott of lettuce and grapes. This won higher wages for farm workers
How many workers were in unions by 1920?
By the 1950s, what did workers have?
75% had cars
87% a TV
Who owned 90% of the oil industry
Who controlled 25% of US iron and steel production until he sold it in 1901?
How much did Carnegie sell his company for?
What was the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?
Made illegal any monopoly that restrained trade
What did president Cleveland do to stop the Pullman strike?
Send 2000 troops
What was the omnibus indictment act?
Prohibited strikers and representatives from persuading others to strike
What was the Clayton Antitrust Act?
Allowed peaceful picketing
Who was Samuel Gompers?
leader of the American Federation of Labor
What was the Lochner vs New York case
Supreme Court rejected the law that limited the number of hours a Baker could work.
Coppage v. Kansas 1915
Allowed yellow dog contracts
Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923)
declared that women were, equal to men so could not be protected by special legislation
What case caused the NIRA act to be declared unconstitutional?
The Schecter brothers were selling unfit chicken. The court ruled it wasnt a matter for the federal government
Occupational Health and Safety act
Why did the PATCO strike occur?
The government were unwilling to let air traffic controllers to have increased wages for lower hours
How did president Reagan react to the PATCO strike?
He laid off all the striking workers
Who weren't allowed to join unions?
Women, unskilled workers and African-Americans
How many workers died during the fire at the triangle shirtwaist factory
Where did the Haymarket affair occur?
What happened after the Haymarket affair?
8 german immigrants were arrested and 5 were executed
How many days did the homestead strike last?
Who was Henry Frick?
Part of the carnegie company
What happened during the Homestead strike?
The union were locked out
Violence followed and Henry Frick was stabbed and shot.
What was the full formal name for the Wobblies who were violent and militant?
The Industrial Workers of the World
Which group, first formed in 1869, did Terrence Powderley lead?
Knights of Labor
What were the contracts called where workers agreed not to join a union?
Which term describes the benefits that were gained by workers such as pensions, insurance and healthcare?
Which specific event was triggered by the strike at the McCormick Harvester Plant in Chicago?
What do the initials NIRA stand for?
National Industry Recovery Act
What was another name for the National Labor Relations Act?
In what year year was the Wagner Act passed?
What do the initials BSCP stand for?
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Who controlled 90% of all oil refineries at one stage?
Who sold his 25% of US iron and steel production for $250 million in 1901?
Which strike in 1894 impacted national mail delivery?
Which injunction of 1894 passed by the Attorney General stopped other unions from striking to support the union in dispute?
Omnibus indictment act
Which president sent in 2,000 troops to break the Pullman strike so mail could be moved?
What was the name of the leader of the American Railway Union who was jailed?
Which act was passed to break up big company monopolies in 1890 but was used by some courts against the unions?
Sherman anti-trust act
Who cut the working day to 8 hours, doubled the daily wage to $5 and brought in profit sharing but held out against unions?
What percentage of the workforce were unemployed by 1933?
By the end of the 1950s, what did 87% of workers have?
what do the initials CIO stand for?
Congress of Industrial Organisation
what was the name of the agencies set up by Roosevelt to give relief and create jobs?
What was declared unconstitutional in 1935?
Which system meant that workers could be laid off in quiet times?
How many union members were there in 1938?
What is it called where there is one union in a workplace and all workers must join it?
In ___________________ vs _______________________, the supreme court ruled against limiting the hours a baker could work
Lochner vs New York
Which product had the Schechter brothers sold?
Which president threatened to nationalize the coal mines?
Who was the original leader of the AFL?
What do the initials NWLB stand for?
National War Labor Board
_____________ vs Kansas allowed yellow dog contracts
When did Ford agree to recognise unions?
What do the initials UAW stand for?
United Automobile Workers
Which company did the UAW beat with a 'sit-in' strike in 1937?
Which car firm, employing 80,000 workers was pressured into recognising unions?
Who was president when the equal pay act was passed?
Which union was led by Eugene Debs?
American Railway Union
What was the private security firm used to break strikes?
In which state were there no unionized steel plants in 1900?
Which president insisted on making all appointments to the Labor relations board and only appointed those he approved of?
Which 'army' marched to get jobs created
Who led the CIO in its breakaway from the AFL after 1935?
John L Lewis
Which act of 1959 aimed to stop corruption in unions and end links with organised crime, it also stopped secondary picketing?
Landrum Griffin act
Battle of Little Bighorn
Dawes Severalty Act
Wounded Knee Massacre
Society of American Indians formed
Indian Citizenship Act
Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler-Howard act)
National Congress of American Indians
Policy of Termination began
American Indian Movement (AIM) established
Seige of Alcatraz
Oneida Vs Oneida and Madison Counties New York
Indian Self-Determination Act
Indian Education Assistance Act
Fisher vs Montana
United states vs Sioux nation
Seminole tribe vs Butterworth
Charrier vs Bell
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
Harrison vs Laveen
Occupation of Mount Rushmore
AIM take over Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington DC
Occupation of Wounded Knee
Violence at Pine Ridge Reservation
What did Native tribes want?
- the right to tribal sovereignty
- the right to use their land freely
- the right to live according to their traditional culture
What was the Government's main policy up to 1914?
Name the 5 civilized tribes
Which act of 1830 facilitated Indian removal from east to west?
Indian removal act
Name the states where schools were set up for Native American children
Virginia and Pennsylvania
What was the official name for the Snyder act?
Indian citizenship act
What was set up in 1824 to control Indian affairs?
Bureau of Indian Affairs
How many acres of land would an Indian receive under the Dawes Act?
What was the idea that said God wanted whites to take the land from Indians to make better use of it?
Name the practice of leaving the old and sick behind when tribes moved?
Which tribe made success of farming (sheep/goats)?
Which measure of 1923 attempted to ban further parts of Indian culture?
Which report produced by reformers in 1928 condemned the allotment policy?
What is the alternate name for the Wheeler-Howard act?
Indian reorganization act
Name the hallucinatory drug that was used on the reservations
Whose ideas were watered down to create the Wheeler-Howard act?
Who was president at the time of the Wheeler-Howard act?
How many tribes rejected the Reorganisation act?
What language was used as a code in the Pacific in WW2?
Which group of people were allowed to have reservation land after WW2?
What was the nickname for whiskey?
In what year did Grant's peace policy begin?
At which railway station were a group of 'westernized' Native Americans Shown to promote the termination policy?
Where did Colonel Chivington and his Colorado Volunteers massacre Indians in 1864?
Which state was originally designated as 'Indian Territory'?
Whereabouts was Gold discovered in 1874, disturbing the Sioux Indians?
Name the important Treaty of 1851 that took land from the Indians and set up a reservation next to the Mississippi river?
Which aspect of the Dawes Act was particularly unacceptable to the Cherokees and Iroquois Indians?
The tribes were matriarchal and the land was given to the men
Why were resources not devoted to the return of unallocated land to Native Americans after the Wheeler-Howard act of 1934?
Resources were diverted to the war effort during WW2
Which president signed the Dawes Severalty Act?
Lone Wolf vs Hitchcock 1903 ruling
It was legal to break previous treaties and take Indian land as Indians were 'wards of state'
Pueblo Indians and their right to manage their land 1913
The court ruled that they were incapable of managing land so they lost lots of land in 1921.
How did the supreme court respond to Indians asking for the vote pre 1939?
They imposed a range of voting qualifications which excluded Native Americans.
Harrison vs Laveen ruling 1948
Sided with the Native Americans when they challenged a decision to allow a council official to refuse to allow them to register to vote.
Oneida vs Oneida and Madison Counties ruling 1974
The court allowed the tribe to have land returned to them
Fisher vs Montana ruling 1976
Tribal courts would decide all adoption issues
United States vs Sioux nation ruling 1980
The supreme court ruled that they should be compensated for losing the Black Hills. They rejected the money in favour of the land being returned.
Seminole tribe vs Butterworth ruling 1982
The tribe were allowed to set up a casino on their land
Charrier v. Bell ruling 1986
Native American remains that were dug up were returned to tribes.
What was the National Congress of American Indians?
Set up in 1944, sought to involve ordinary Indians in legal struggles against assimilation.
What was the Native American Rights Fund?
Set up in 1970 to help take cases to the supreme court over national sovereignty issues.
When was the Dawes act abolished?
When was the Curtis act and what did it do?
said that the 5 civilized tribes would be included in the Dawes act after 1906
How many Indians moved off the plains due to the Dawes act?
What did the Snyder Act do?
Granted citizenship to the Indians who didn't already have it (around 125,00)
When was the Dance order and what was it?
an attempt to stop Pueblo Indians from performing ceremonial dances, it was defeated in congress.
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