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BIO 1409 - Exam 2 Review
Terms in this set (50)
Animals need a respiratory system primarily because each cell of their body carries on what process?
ATP and oxygen (cellular respiration)
Identify the waste product of cellular respiration.
After a rain you often see dead earthworms on the sidewalk. What probably caused their death?
A worm comes to the surface while it's raining, then the sun comes out and the water on the sidewalk evaporates quickly. The worm's skin is getting drier and it can't move because of the light, so it will dry up and die
Identify the gas exchange portion/structure of the human lung?
Alveoli (inhaled oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries, and carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries to the air in the alveoli.)
Identify the structure that prevents foods and liquids from entering the lungs?
Identify the process in the lungs which results in gas exchange?
Gas exchange takes place in the millions of alveoli in the lungs and the capillaries that envelop them. As shown below, inhaled oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries, and carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries to the air in the alveoli.
List the gases that can bind to hemoglobin.
During inhalation, what happens to the diaphragm?
contracts and pulls downward; flattens and shortens
How much air enters the lungs in an average breath? (use metric system)
500 ml or 0.5 liters
In what part of the brain is the respiratory center located?
The respiratory system is regulated to maintain a constant level of what gas in the blood?
What do the cells lining the conducting portion of the human respiratory system secrete?
What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration?
Contracts and moves downwards
At the end of a quiet expiration more air can be pushed out of the lungs by the contraction of what muscles?
Explain why holding one's breath does not result in death?
You automatically start breathing again when you black out. It is involuntary.
A patient is admitted to the hospital after falling from the second story. Tests reveal no other injuries other than some swelling in her brain. Why does her breathing become irregular?
The damage to the brain is affecting the respiratory center in the medulla.
Identify the mechanisms explaining how carbon dioxide is transported by the blood?
It is dissolved directly in the blood, bound to plasma proteins or hemoglobin, or converted into bicarbonate. The majority of carbon dioxide is transported as part of the bicarbonate system. Carbon dioxide diffuses into red blood cells.
How can a urinary system play a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis?
The urinary system cleanses the blood of waste products from metabolism and regulates the normal balance of water, salts, and acids in body fluids.
Urea is a product resulting from the breakdown of what class of food?
Describe what happens to amino acids that are not needed by the body.
they are converted into glucose or ketones, or they are decomposed.
What nitrogenous waste is excreted by birds?
What is the basic unit of structure and function for the kidney?
Which portion of the nephron receives filtrate from bowman's capsule?
Identify the force that drives filtration in the kidney and the structures of the kidney involved.
Hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillary and Bowman's space.
What happens to glucose and amino acids when they are in the proximal convoluted tubule?
Renal glucose reabsorption is the part of kidney (renal) physiology that deals with the retrieval of filtered glucose, preventing it from disappearing from the body through the urine.
If glucose is not reabsorbed by the kidney, it appears in the urine, in a condition known as glycosuria. This is associated with diabetes mellitus.
Firstly, the glucose in the proximal tubule is co-transported with sodium ions into the proximal convoluted tubule walls via the SGLT2 cotransporter. Some (typically smaller) amino acids are also transported in this way. Once in the tubule wall, the glucose and amino acids diffuse directly into the blood capillaries along a concentration gradient. This blood is flowing, so the gradient is maintained. Lastly, sodium/potassium ion active transport pumps remove sodium from the tubule wall and the sodium is put back into the blood. This maintains a sodium concentration gradient in the proximal tubule lining, so the first step continues to happen.
Where are the kidneys located in the human body?
Against the dorsal body wall in retroperitoneal position.
After surgery, grandma has difficulty urinating. The doctor orders that she be catheterized. About how much urine would you expect to come out if she is an average adult?
1.5 liters or less?
Which region is closest to the external surface of the kidney?
What is the hollow inner chamber of the kidney called?
Renal sinus/renal pelvis?
List the structures composing the nephron:
A nephron consists of three units: the Bowman's capsule and glomerulus and the renal tubule.
The blood vessel leaving the glomerulus has a smaller diameter than the blood vessel entering it, what effect does this have?
the Afferent arteriole is significantly wider than the Efferent arteriole.
Due to the significant arteriole size (the size gets smaller as it enters the glomerulus), blood pressure builds in the glomerulus and blood is filtered quicker more efficiently.
What is the process called by which water and nutrients are passed from the filtrate back into the blood?
Trace the route of urine in order from the collecting duct (tubule) to the outside.
2. glomerular filtrate
3. proximal convoluted tubule
4. Renal tubules
6. collecting ducts
What controls the concentration of water in the urine?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is produced by the pituitary gland to control the amount of water that is reabsorbed through the collecting ducts.
Which portions of the nephron reabsorb water in response to ADH concentrations?
Most water is recovered in the PCT, loop of Henle, and DCT. About 10 percent (about 18 L) reaches the collecting ducts. The collecting ducts, under the influence of ADH, can recover almost all of the water passing through them, in cases of dehydration, or almost none of the water, in cases of over-hydration.
What are 3 differences between the control exerted by the nervous system and endocrine system?
1. nervous system: Electrical impulses are the messengers in the nervous system. Brain and the spinal cord are involved in the nervous system. Nerve impulses are transmitted through neurons. The nervous system is under both voluntary and involuntary control. Nerve impulses make use of the neurotransmitters at synaptic clefts and sodium and potassium channels and enter the target cells.
2. endocrine system: Hormones are the chemical messengers in the endocrine system that target cells through the bloodstream. Glands and organs like thyroid, pituitary glands and reproductive organs (ovaries and testes) are involved in the endocrine system. Hormones are transmitted through blood vessels. The endocrine system is under involuntary control. The hormones enter into the target cells by diffusing through the plasma membrane or by binding to the cell receptors.
Which portion of the neuron typically receives information?
soma (cell body)
What is the basic unit of structure and function for the nervous and endocrine system?
Within a single neuron, in order, what is the direction the nerve impulse takes?
3. soma (cell body)
5. axon terminals
What structure of the neuron contains the nucleus and other organelles typical of cells?
soma (cell body)
What is the longest process of the neuron called?
In neurons what ions are at a higher concentration inside the cells? Outside the cell?
Potassium ions inside the cell, sodium ions outside the cell.
In a nerve cell at its resting potential, what is characteristic of the sodium channels?
Closed sodium channels do not conduct sodium ions, but are ready to be activated or "opened" when stimulated by membrane depolarization.
When an action potential reaches a portion of the membrane, what channel opens?
At a synapse, are neurotransmitters released from dendrites. If not where are neurotransmitters released?
Neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal when their vesicles "fuse" with the membrane of the axon terminal, spilling the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
What is the function of the axon?
Conducts electrical impulses away from nerve cell body, transmit information to neurons/muscles/glands.
Most brain cells are what type of neuron?
What type of neuron will activate the bicep muscle in your arm?
What does the autonomic nervous system control?
heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response.
If a person gets meningitis, that is an inflammation of meninges that cover what structures?
brain and spinal cord
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