Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 14 Endocrine System Final Review
Terms in this set (33)
near/kidney and above/kidney
to urge on
soul or flowery
1. Regulates endocrine system
2. When our blood sugar level drops, it makes us hungry. If we are warm, it lowers our internal temperature and makes us sweat.
3. Closely regulates 20 brain hormones and 200 (plus) hormones produced by body.
phlegm and mucus or sticky
AKA: Hypo/physis Cerebri (below/growth: of Brain)
1. Master Endocrine Gland: secrete hormones that regulate body functions.
2. "Anterior" part secretions:
a. HGH or (human growth = hormone somatropin - cell stimulator)
b. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
c. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
d. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
e. LH (luteiniz/ing hormone): estrogen and progesterone in females; ICSH (interstitial cell stimulating hormone) for sperm and testo/sterone production in males.
f. Lactogenic/Prolactin hormone (breasts)
3. "Posterior" part secretions:
a. oxytocin: enables childbirth contractions
b. ADH or Vaso/pressin: nephron activity slows vessel/urine production
4. Vaso/pressin and oxytocin are from post. pituitary.
5. Hypo/pituitar/ism causes dwarfism, Simmond's Disease, hypogonadism, and Sheehan's Syndrome (postpartum infarct).
6. Low vasopressin causes diabetes insipidus. Any decrease in ant. and post. lobe hormones may cause obesity.
near/kidney or above/kidney
1. Triangular shaped gland on top of the kidneys.
2. Has an outer cortex and inner medulla.
3. In adults, its average weight is about 1/3 ounce, and it is about 2/3 the size of your fist.
4. Medulla affects adjustments of body for response to emotional states (fight or flight).
5. Controlled primarily by SNS. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced to regulate blood flow to body.
6. The cortex secretes several hormones, which affect metabolism and physiology of reproduction.
7. Almost all body systems are affected by adreno/cortical hormones.
Addison's Disease AKA: Hypo/adreno/cortic/ism or Kennedy's Disease
hypo- = under, less; ad- = near; reno- = kidney; cortex = bark; -al = pertaining to
1. Results from decreased secretion or effect of adrenal cortical hormones.
2. Infectious diseases such as TB destroy adrenal cortex. This results in increased pigmentation of skin and mucous membranes.
3. Vitiligo (corruption "white skin patches") is seen along with black freckles on head.
4. Weakness, fatigability, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, possible hypoglycemia, and geographic tongue.
5. If untreated, leads to progressive deterioration of body.
6. Treatment is adrenocortical hormone therapy.
Cushing's Syndrome (hyper-adrenal cortex "ACTH")
1. Caused by adrenal cortex hyper/secretion (glucocorticoids), caused by tumors or excess of ACTH secretion from pituitary.
2. Caused by prolonged administration of large doses of adreno/cortical hormones.
3. Symptoms include obesity, protein loss, fatigue, fatty tissue deposits, weakness, thinning skin, a/men/o/rrhea, impotence, edema, excessive hair growth, osteo/por/o/sis, stretch marks, or diabetes mellitus.
*thyreos - shield
*-oid - resembling or state
1. A gland of internal secretion in the neck.
2. Located on both sides of lower voice box and upper trachea or windpipe.
3. TSH is produced by anterior pituitary.
4. Thyroxine is a hormone responsible for carbohydrate metabolism (BMR).
hypo- under, below, decrease; thyreos - shield; -oid - resembling; -ism - state of
1. Deficiency in secretion of thyroid resulting in a lowered BMR.
2. Obesity, dry skin and hair, low BP, slow pulse, sluggishness, decreased muscular activity, and goiter.
3. Treatment is supplement of thyroid hormones and an increase of iodine in diet.
1. More than 25 different causes of this enlargement of thyroid gland.
2. May be caused by lack of iodine in diet, inflammation induced by an infection, tumors, or hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
hyperthyroidism or dys/thyr/oid/ism
*dys- faulty, bad, difficult, or painful
*thyreos - shiel
*-oid - resembling
*-ism - state of
1. Imperfect development and hyper/thyroid function causing ex/ophthalmia and a goiter.
2. Ex/ophthalmic refers to eyes bulging out because of excess thyroxine, irritating eye muscles and causing them to contract and push eyes outward.
3. Familial, auto/immune response of unknown origin. It affect women 10 times more than men. Onset is 20s-30s.
4. Often diagnosed as hyperthyroidism or thyro/toxic/o/sis.
5. Caused by excessive thyroxin from thyroid gland which increase BMR of body. This causes an increase in hunger or a demand for food to support excessive body activities.
6. Patient has bulging eyes, tremors, nervousness, weight loss, sweating, rapid pulse, blurred vision, enlarged lymph nodes and thymus, and heat intolerance.
7. Treatment can be surgical by excising thyroid gland or by using anti/thyr/oid drugs.
ant/agon/istic use of: body calcium
1. Secretes parathyroid hormones that help maintain blood calcium levels and ensures normal neuro/muscular irritability, blood clotting, and cell membrane permeability.
2. Oval, brownish-red disk is 4 to 6 mm in size and is divided into superior and inferior levels.
3. Found at junction of pharynx and esophagus, with a rich capillary supply.
4. Hypo/function causes tetany
5. Hyper/function results in an increase in blood cell calcium and fall in phosphorus.
hyper = increase, para = near or beside, thyreos = shield-shaped, -oid = resembling, -ism = state
1. Regulates blood calcium and phosphorus levels
2. Hyperparathyroidism is an increase in production or parathormone.
3. Decrease in phosphorus and calcium is deposited in abnormal areas.
1. Failure of this gland can lead to neuromuscular excitability with convulsions.
2. Treatment is calcium and Vitamin D supplements and avoidance of dietary phosphorus.
3. Hypo function causes hyperexcitability of muscles, convulsions, tetany, cramps, wheezing, mood changes, frequent urination, blurred vision, cataracts, and dry skin.
1. General term used for a disease that causes excessive urination or possibly sugar passes through without being broken down, to cause high blood sugar levels.
2. Poor carbohydrate metabolism that leads to high blood sugar levels. This elevated sugar in urine caused by poor production and use of pancreatic insulin.
3. Genetic predisposition, inflammation or malignant attack of pancreas causes diabetes mellitus.
4. Other symptoms include poly/uria, poly/dipsi/a, poly/phagia, itching, sores, weight loss, and poor vision.
5. If untreated, it can lead to ketoacidosis, weakness, nausea, delirium, coma, and death.
6. Several types including Type I or juvenile onset and Type II or adult onset.
7. Diabetes insipidus is a problem with vaso/pressin "ADH."
8. Symptoms include poly/uria, poly/dipsia, xero/derma, and my/asthenia.
9. Often caused by trauma, tumors, or other problems with pituitary gland.
10. Treatment is eradication of causative factor and vaso/pressin supplements.
flowery, mind, spirit, soul
1. Located in media/stinum cavity, ant. and sup. to heart.
2. Has 2 main lobes that are divided into many lobules.
3. Cortex is composed of dense lymphoid tissue containing many thymocytes. Medullary tissue has a few "thymocytes."
4. Thymus doubles in size by puberty
5. Tumors are usually benign and associated with my/asthenia gravis or an immune deficiency disorder.
6. Essential for development of small lymphocytic "T-Cells."
cancer has meta/stasis "changed from stoppage"
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Medical Terminology Ch. 15: The Endocrine System
NUR 305 Endocrine System
[CLA 131: Fall'17] Unit 4, Chapter 15: The Endocri…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ch. 13 Reproductive Systems and STIs Final Chapter…
Ch. 12 Urinary System Uro/genital System Final Rev…
Ch. 11 Digestive System Final Exam Review Guide
Ch. 10 Integumentary System Final Review Guide