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Human Happiness midterm #1
Terms in this set (82)
The supreme human virtue, doing one's best to treat others as one would wish to be treated
Principle of serviceable habits (Darwin)
a situation in which people cannot achieve their goals because of an inability to make credible threats or promises
sympathetic autonomic nervous system
fight or flight response- excitatory to heart, inhibitory to digestive
Parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA)
according to evolutionary psychologists, the critical period for understanding the selective forces that shape human behavior; exemplified by hunter-gatherer lifestyles of hominids before the advent of agriculture
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
greatness in size, extent, or number
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
the tenth cranial nerve that innervates digestive organs, heart and other areas
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.
stress hormone released by the adrenal cortex
deep respect for someone or something
raising a body part
set point theory
belief that brain mechanisms regulate body weight around a genetically predetermined 'set point'
An effect that occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness-unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point, or baseline for comparison, changes.
preoccupation with physical comforts and things
a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation
"the positive emotion one feels when another person has intentionally given (or tried to give) something of value."
best possible self
thinking about the self in an imaginary future in which everything has turned out in the most optimal way
evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others
providing enough but not too much of a substance
Greater Good (Utilitarianism) / What is Utilitarianism?
This philosophical approach emphasizes that happiness is found in actions that promote happiness for the greatest number of people.
Sexual Selection Theory
The argument that sex differences in behaviour are determined by evolutionary history rather than society.
Consolation behaviors in primates
the ability to understand and share the feelings of another
The resemblance of one species to another species
the action or sound of laughing
(n.) sympathy for another's suffering; pity
wordless vocalizations such as ah or mmm, intended to express a particular emotion
Circle of Care
Prehabilitation -> Participation -> Injury -> Recognition -> First Aid -> Diagnosis/Treatment -> Rehabilitation
The neuronal body-rich region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aqueduct that connects the third and fourth ventricles; involved in pain perception.
Stopping blaming someone and/or pardoning them for what they have done wrong
the act of agreement after a quarrel, the resolution of a dispute
words expressing regret; words asking to be excused for an action
an overwhelming feeling of wonder or admiration
❖Awe = feeling of being diminished in
the presence of something greater
than the self and motivation to be
good to others
➢Emotional response to vast stimuli
❖Awe as a collective emotion
➢Possible explanation for awe leading to
sense of small self & prosocial tendencies
➢Collaborative social groups
the quality of being holy, worthy of respect and reverence
Spirituality and health
Over 130 controlled studies find that prayer OR a prayer-like state of compassion, empathy and love can bring about measurable health changes
the quality of being physically attractive
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
the contemporary situation where we have material abundance co-occurring with social recession and psychological depression
•The American Paradox
• In spite of "economic strength" as measured by GDP, US seems to underperform in terms of
•Problems of Hyper Individualism, Unconstrained Capitalism
• The illusion of wealth
• Loss of social ties, community
• Hyper self focus
• Rising incivility on line
• Harms the health & happiness of low Socio
economic status (SES) people AND high SES
• Hinders all the skills that motivate them to
contribute to the greater good: empathy,
compassion, altruism, desire to connect
4 Horseman of the Apocalypse
Simon-Thomas, E.R., et al. (2012). An fMRI Study of Caring vs. Self-Focus During
Induced Compassion and Pride. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(6), 635-648.
● Compassion (caring) v. Pride (self-focus)
○Do they have specific neural systems?
● Induce intense and isolated feelings of pride and compassion to understand the relationship between self-reported experience and areas of neural activation
- activation of empathy network in the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus and midbrain PAG
○Core features: In-group suffering, vulnerability, and parental nurturing
- activation of cortical midline areas
○Core features: self-reference
Piff, P. K., Dietze, P., Feinberg, M., Stancato, D. M., & Keltner, D. (2015). Awe, the small
self,and prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(6), 883.
How does awe influence whether individuals behave in ways that prioritize the self vs others in the social environment?
➢Study 1: Dispositional levels of awe predict generosity in an economic game
➢Study 2: Awe increases ethicality by feelings from a "small self"
➢Study 3: Awe increases generosity via the "small self"
➢Study 4: Negative Awe and non-
nature awe increase prosociality via the small self
➢Study 5: Tall trees elicit more awe
and prosocial behavior than tall buildings
Bartlett, M.Y., & DeSteno, D. (2006). Gratitude and Prosocial Behavior: Helping When it
Costs You. Psychological Science, 17(4), 319-325.
●Long believed to be essential for maintaining social relationships
●It encourages reciprocal prosocial behavior, even if such reciprocation ends
up being costly in the short-term
●Recent research shows that those who experience more gratitude engage
with more prosocial behaviors
● Gratitude plays important role in promoting costly helping behavior
● This is distinguished from being in a general positive state and understanding prosocial norms
● Gratitude helps the foundation of relationships and life satisfaction
○Accept short-term losses for long-term benefits
Rand, D.G., Greene, J.D., & Nowak, M.A. (2012). Spontaneous Giving and Calculated
Greed. Nature, 489(7416), 427-430.
Are humans intuitively cooperative or intuitively selfish?
Does conscious thought and deliberation lead to greed or generosity?
The researchers did not present an argument/preference for either hypothesis, they
just stated all of the possible outcomes...
1. Self-interest is intuitive and cooperation requires reflection
→Faster decisions will be less cooperative
2. Cooperation is intuitive and reflection leads to selfishness
→Faster decisions will be more cooperative
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Varieties of Altruism in Children and
Chimpanzees. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(9), 397-402.
Q: Are human beings biologically predisposed to
perform altruistic behaviors?
- We know that young children show prosocial, altruistic behavior at a very early age.
- By examining the behaviors of chimpanzees, the nearest primate relatives, the researchers seek to find if there are evolutionary roots of human altruism.
●Helping others achieve goals
●Sharing valuable goods with others
●Informing others of things they want to know
❖ Infants are naturally empathetic, helpful, generous.
➢Reciprocity, reputation, and social norms emerge through development
❖Altruism is not a single trait.
➢3 domains (sharing / informing / helping)
This philosophical approach emphasizes that happiness is found in respect, reverence, social harmony, and bringing out the good in others.
what is confuscionism?
Philosophical approach that emphasizes five prohibitions or yamas - violence, greed, sex, stealing, and lying.
What is Hinduism?
Philosophical approach that teaches four noble truths and emphasizes loving kindness, compassion, and nonjudgmental mindfulness.
What is Buddhism?
This philosophical approach teaches that happiness is the sum of our sensory pleasures and the absence of pain.
What is Epicureanism?
Bartlett & DeSteno hypothesized that feelings of _________ encourage an individual to perform a good social deed even if it will be costly to him or her in the short term.
Rand et al. found that subjects in a time-pressure condition contributed significantly ________ money on average compared to subjects in a time-delay condition.
●Rand et al. found that subjects in a time-pressure condition contributed significantly more money on average compared to subjects in a time-delay condition.
●Contributions were higher when subjects were primed to promote intuition relative to reflection.
Warneken & Tomasello compared children and chimps and found that while both were biologically predisposed to help others achieve goals but only children were predisposed to engage in these two types of behaviors.
●Sharing resources altruistically
●Informing others helpfully
Simon-Thomas et al. showed participants blocks of slides intended to induce two different emotions and found that _________ was associated with activation in the periaqueductal gray, while _________ was associated with activation in the posterior medial cortex.
Name two different ways Piff et al. measured awe to test the hypothesis that awe leads to the diminishment of the self and increased prosocial behavior.
○Trait-level dispositional awe (DPES)
○Watched videos to induce awe
○Looked up at 200 ft eucalyptus trees
The ability to take the perspective of and feel the emotions of another person.
Means "to suffer together" - the feeling that arises when you are confronted with another's suffering.
Feeling of reverence for that which is given to you.
Keltner et al. found high _________ activation from compassion inducing images.
○Reduces heart rate, releases oxytocin, which promotes trust and love.
According to Sonja Lyubomirsky, how you think about yourself and others is more important to happiness than the objective circumstances of your life. She breaks happiness down as 50% genetics, ____% intentional activities, and _____ % life circumstances.
According to Keltner & Haidt, these two appraisals are present in all experiences of awe
●Need for accommodation
Similar to awe, this self-transcendent emotion is the warm, uplifting feeling experienced with viewing acts of human goodness, kindness, courage, or compassion.
This physiological outcome of awe occurs when we feel expanded beyond the boundaries of our skin and involves the activation of minute muscles that surround hair follicles.
Awe-inspiring stimuli are not able to be accounted for by existing mental structures and schemas and may require the individual to restructure frames of reference, beliefs, causal understandings, and categories. This process is called ____________.
Give an example of a threat-based appraisal of awe.
●E.g., natural disasters, war
●"Negative awe" may lead to fear or threat-based appraisals
●May short circuit some of the beneficial outcomes associated with awe
A brief, non-word utterance that arises between speech incidents that is sufficient to communicate a specific emotion.
Anatomically based method for identifying every visible facial muscle movement in the frame-by-frame analysis of facial expression as it occurs in the seamless flow of social interaction - often used as an objective measure of emotion.
●Facial action coding system (FACS)
○E.g., Duchenne smile
Long-term relationships require that we transcend narrow in-the-moment, pleasure-seeking self-interest. This is referred to in BTBG as the __________ problem.
○See BTBG p. 36
Soldiers at war may find themselves overwhelmed by the humanity of the humans they are fighting and killing. Some describe the force of compassion as overwhelming. This describes _________ ____________.
The tendency to adjust to new life circumstances or events, resulting in a quick return to a relatively stable level of happiness after positive or negative events. This is adaptive when the new event is unpleasant but not when it is positive.
○We don't want to quickly adjust/adapt to our positive life circumstances!
Where Does Happiness Come From?
= How we feel + ways that we think about things + what we do
Key Happiness Levers: CPR
I. Social Connection
Happiness = feeling good/bad about life
Why study happiness? kinds of research
Comparing influences of
happiness versus neutral state upon different outcomes
•Cross-sectional: Correlation between self-
reports of happiness and outcome gathered at one moment in time
Study of happy people's lives over time
Contemplative practice: THE BREATH
•Foundation is breath
•Mindfulness: open, kind, nonjudgmental to contents of mind
•Move to body awareness, senses, moral emotions,
environment, other people
THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION:
A CULTURE OF MEANING
- 2500 years ago, Axial Age:
emergence of Judeo-Christian, Hebrew Prophets, Classical Greek, Buddhist, Hindu, Taoist,
• Out of expanding markets, materialism, disease, violence,
break down of community
•Reverence, mystical experience
•Sharing, empathy, kindness
•Resilient, Calm mind
•Focus, attention, impermanence of mind
•A person of
, Confucius observes,
establish his own character, also establishes the
character of others.
A person of
brings the good things of others
to completion and does not bring the bad things
of others to completion.
ways of interacting and honoring others
life force, deep meaning
- it's what animates us, gives us purpose, direction
- early mystics, spiritual properties of the world, humans
(Armstrong, 1993; A History of God)
- DNA? Quantum forms of energy in sentient beings
- we sense intuitively
- Happiness found in observing nature
natural unfolding of being
This set is often in folders with...
Psych c162 Midterm #1
PSYCH 162 midterm 1
Psych C162 MT#1
Human Happiness Study Guide - Exam 1
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