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Terms in this set (145)
___ are used as cellular energy sources because they are superior electron donors.
Changes in environmental conditions can cause the denaturalization of cellular ___ and can block metabolic reactions and ultimatley result in cell death.
no longer being synthesized
The terminology "enzyme repression" implies that the enzyme is
nucleic acids, cell wall, slime layer, capsule, & glycogen
Carbohydrates are important in the structure of which of the following cellular components?
In ___ respiration, oxygen is not the terminal acceptor.
activating the gene responsible for a particular enzyme
The word "induction" when used to describe enzyme induction is in reference to
What term is used to describe the link between anabolic and catabolic reactions where immediate metabolites can move between the reactions?
___ is the generation of a proton motive force by the pumping of hydrogen ion to the outer side of the membrane during electron transport and the movement of those hydrogen ions down their...
The ATP generated in the Krebs cycle is produced by __ phosphorylation.
NADPH, ATP, CO2
Identify the direct components used to generate sugar in the calvin cycle.
A(n) ___ enzyme describes an enzyme present in constant amounts regardless of the presence of substate.
What term is used to describe the integration of catabolic reactions to improve cellular efficiency?
chemicals, high temps, changes in PH
Which of the following can result in the denaturalization of enzymes?
Which energy requiring process results in the formation of a new cell?
Enzyme ___ is a type of control of enzyme synthesis where enzymes are made only when suitable substrates are present.
What term is used to describe the proton motive force?
The return of nitrogenous compounds to the atmosphere at the end of the nitrogen cycle is called ____
What name is used to describe enzymes that are generally found at constant amounts in the cell independent on substrate concentrations?
sulfate, nitrate, carbonate
Which oxidized compound can be used as a final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration?
Which compound feeds directly into the Krebs cycle?
The first step in glycolysis is the ___ of glucose.
anabolism, binary fission
When___ (processes) synthesizes sufficient macromolecules to support two cells and the chromosome has been duplicated, a bacterial cell will divide by a process called ____ _____.
glucose is split into 2 intermediates at step 4
Why do the last five reactions of glycolysis occur twice for each glucose substrate?
What term is used to describe the proton motive force?
enzymes are not used up in the reaction they catalyze; enzymes lower the energy of activation for the reaction they catalyze
Which of the following statements about enzymes are true?
During the last steps of glycolysis, ATP is generated by ____ ____ phosphorylation.
___ describes a metabolism where the intermediate products of catabolic reactions can be used in anabolic reactions.
alcoholic fermintation, acidic fermintation
Identify two fermintation pathways.
During acetyl coA formation____ co2 and ___ NADH are produced per initial glucose that enters glycolysis.
___ is the generation of a proton....
substate, type of action, site of action
Enzymes are named and classified according to their
How many net ATP are generated during fermintation?
In prokaryotes, the protons are pumped actively across the ___ membrane by the elctron transport carriers.
The incomplete breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen that yields only a small amount of ATP and produces a variety of byproducts is a process called
Which of the following act as an electron carrier for redox reactions in metabolism?
___ are principle components of coenzymes and is the reason why they are important components of our diet.
Typically, the presence of enzymes ___ the activation energy for a reaction to proceed.
___ are proteins composed of amino acids and can act as a cellular catalyst.
ATP forms by substrate level phosphorylation
What occurs in the last 3 steps of glycosis?
For each molecule of glucose that enters gylcosis, the last five reactions occur
6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4Co2, 2 ATP
For each glucose that enters glycolysis the Krebs cycle produces
The Krebs cycle generates ATP by ___ phosphorylation
dependent on the products from the light reaction to work
The Calvin cycle is
Typically, ___ ATP are netted by fermentation.
Which is NOT associated with fermentation?
Fermentation allows survival and growth in the absence of ___ and allows colonization of ___ environments.
In prokaryotes, the protons are pumped actively across the ___ membrane by the electron transport carriers.
2 NADH 2 Co2
For each glucose that enters glycolysis acetyl coA formation results in the production of
replenshes nitrogen in the atmosphere
What is the ecological benefit of denitrificaion?
coverted into fructose 6 phosphate
What happens to glucose 6 phosphate in glycolysis?
ATP, substrates, water, cofactor/coenzyme
Identify all the possible "needs" for an enzyme to work.
when oxygen is low
When would human cells use fermentation as opposed to respiration to produce ATP?
Green and purple bacteria undergo...
The first step of Krebs cycle....
Glycoysis has ___ steps.
How many steps compose the Krebs cycle?
A non functional enzyme which needs cofactor
Which energy rich product of aerobic
proton motive force
The active pumping of hydrogen ions ___ ___ ___
formic, lactic, succinic, acetic
In mixed acid fermentation pyruvic acid converted
Which of the following can synthezised macro from Co2?
Using abbreviated acronym common coenzyme carrier
Which of the following is an alternate carbo pathway?
The souring of milk...
___ is an important process that is involved in the recycling the nitrogen....
Which of the following describe the process occuring during the Calvin cycle?
Less ATP and absence of NADPH
Which is true regarding anoxygenic photosynthesis as compared to...
____ are a domain of life which contain anoxygenic organisms.
Coenzyme Q is also known as what?
Often, regulation of metabolic pathways occurs with activation or repression of ___ maker enzyme
The addition of carbon dioxide to ribulose 1, 5 bisphosphate to begin the calvin cycle is known as
A ____ describes any enzyme that works outside a cell in which it was produced.
Typically, each reaction in a metabolic pathway will requite
Metabolic pathways in which the starting molecule is regenerated....
Krebs cycle, glycolysis, respirtory chain
The primary catabolism of fuel molecules...
The final step of the ETS in aerobic...
bind to a cofactor
For an apoenzyme to become functional...
Regulated enzyme activity is completely dependent...
Which of the following make the "Best" electron donor...
Carbohydrates are NOT important in the structure of....
Some ___ can synthezie all cellular
What term is used to describe enzymes which work...
glucose will yield 2 pruvates
Which of the following identifies the best reason for the Krebs cycle....
The ultimate source of almost all chemical energy on earth is the...
Which type of reactions supply electrons to the electron support system?
proton motive force
A hydrogen ions accumulate between the inner and outer membrane..
The regulatory site of an enzyme can also be referred
In step 5 of glycolysis
Slight changes occur in shapes
In prokaryotes the protons are pumped actively across...
Some ___ can synthesize all cellular molecules
The impermeability of inner cristae....
An alternate pathway used by some bacteria...
Cytochrome aa3 also known as
What do the letters ATP
sulfate, nitrate, carbonate
Which oxidized compound can be used as final electrol
A ___ is an iron containing
During light dependent reactions of the
A ___ is an organic or inorganic enzyme accessory
Electron carriers shuttle both...
Which term is used to describe enzymes that work OUTSIDE the cell?
The __ are red orange and yellow pigments
An inhibioor which binds to a site other than...
A ___ enzyme consists of protein alone...
both types of reactions
Enzymes serve as catalysts for:
For aerobic respiration which is the final electron acceptor?
___ enzyme inhibition is a mechanism of regulation...
ethanol, acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid
During fermentation different organisms reduce...
Which of the following is NOT a terminal electron accepter in anaerobic respiration?
In ___ enzyme inhibition a regulatory molecule binds to a site other...
NADH is oxidized to NAD
Which occurs during fermentation?
Identify which of the following can be anabolically produced...
Fermentation results in the production of ___ ATP
requires an organic electron acceptro
an important site for substance entering and leaving the cell
Periplasmic space is
The outcome of the Gram stain is
In bacterial cells the electron transport system is located in the
The size of a eukaryotic cell ribosome is
protein synthesis would stop
The most immediate result of destruction of a cell's ribosome would be
When enzyme action stops due to a buildup of end product this control is called
Each are electron carriers except
algea and protozoa
Chitin is a chemical component of the cell walls of
produces glucose as an end product
Which of the following are characterists of Calvin cycle?
hydrogen and electron
FAD, NADP, NAD, and coenzyme A are ___ carriers
electron transport system
In what stage of aerobic respiration is water produced?
Peptidologan is a unique...
cilia are found in certain
During unfavorable growth conditions, many protozoa can convert to a resistant, dormant stage called a _____.
Cells form a _____ arrangement when cells in a chain snap back upon each other forming a row of cells oriented side by side.
they are sexual spores
What do zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores have in common?
Which of the following characteristics is NOT a property of a living thing?
ATP molecules are catalysts that lower the activation energy needed to initiate a reaction.
The best way to control a metabolic pathway is to control the fastest enzyme in the series.
The site for ribosomal RNA synthesis is the
Cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum
In eukaryotic cells, ribosomes have two locations: scattered in the _____ and on the surface of _____.
are found in acid fast bacterial cell walls.
All of the following pertain to endotoxins, except they
Pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH
which of the following is not involved in the step that occurs between glycolysis and the krebs cycle
Amination is the addition of a/an _____ group to a carbon skeleton.
Which of the following are denaturing agents except
The eukaryotic cell organelle that most resembles a bacterial cell is the
Fungal spores are used to identify
___ reactions are anabolic reactions ligases....
Plankton are floating communties of hem...
All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease, except
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