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129 terms

Exam #2

Chapters 7-10
STUDY
PLAY
organizing
the deployment of organizational resources to achieve strategic goals
organization structure
the framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed, and departments are coordinated
organization chart
the visual representation of an organization's structure
work specialization
the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs; also called division of labor
chain of command
an unbroken line of authority that links all individuals in the organization and specifies who reports to whom
authority
the formal and legitimate right of a manager to make decisions, issue orders, and allocate resources to achieve organizationally desired outcomes
responsibility
the duty to perform the task or activity an employee has been assigned
accountability
the fact that the people with authority and responsibility are subject to reporting and justifying task outcomes to those avoce them in the chain of demand
delegation
the process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility to positions below themin the hierarchy
line authority
a form of authority in which individuals in management positions have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates
staff authority
a form of authority granted to staff specialists in their area of expertise
span of management
the number of employees reporting to a supervisor also called span of control
tall structure
a management structure characterized by an overall narrow span of management and a relatively large number of heirarchical levels
flat structure
a management structure characterized by an overall broad span of control and relatively few hierarchical levels
centralization
the location of decision authority near top organizational levels
decentralization
the location of decision authority near lower organizational levels
departmentalization
the basis on which individuals are grouped into departments and departments into the total organization
functional structure
the grouping of positions into departments based on similar skills, expertise, and resource use
divisional structure
an organization structure in which departments are grouped based on similar organizational outputs
matrix approach
an organization structure that uses functional and divisional chains of command simultaneously in the same part of the organization
two-boss employee
employees who report to two supervisors simultaneously
matrix boss
the product or functional boss, responsible for one side of the matrix
top leader
the overseer of both the product and functional chains of command responsible for the entire matrix
cross-functional team
a group of employees from various functional departments that meet as a team to resolve mutual problems
permanent teams
a group of participants from several functions who are permanenty assigned to solve ongoing problems of common interest
team-based structure
structure in which the entire organization is made up of horizontal teams that coordinate their activities and work directly with customers to accomplish the organzation's goals
virtual network structure
an organization structure that disaggregates major functions to separate companies that are brokered by a small headquarters organization
modular approach
the process by which a manufacturing company uses outside suppliers to provide large components of the product, which are then assembled into a final product by a few workers
coordination
the quality of collaboration across departments
task force
a temporary team or committee foed to solve a specific short-team problem involving several departments
project manager
a person responsible for coordinating the activities of several departments on a full-time basis for the completion of a specific project
reengineering
the radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed also called business process reengineering
process
an organized group of related tasks and activities that work together to transform inputs into outputs and create value
organizational change
the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization
ambidextrous approach
incorporating structures and processes that are appropriate for both the creative impulse and for the systematic implementation of innovations
product change
a change in the organization's product or service outputs
technology change
a change that pertains to the organization's production process
creativity
the generation of novel ideas that might meet perceived needs or offer opportunities for the organization
idea incubator
an in-house program that provides a safe harbor where ideas from employees throughout the organization can be developed without interference from company bureaucracy or politics
horizontal linkage model
an approach to product change that emphasizes shared development of innovations among several departments
fast-cycle team
a multifunctional team that is provided with high levels of resources and empowerment to accomplish an accelerated product development project
open innovation
extending the search for and commercialization of new ideas beyond the boundaries of the organization
idea champion
a person who sees the need for and champions productive change within the organization
new-venture team
a unit separate from the mainstream of the organization that is responsible for developing and initiating innovations
skunkworks
a separate, small, informal, and highly autonomous, and often secretive group that focuses on breakthrough ideas for a business
new-venture
a fund providing resources from which individuals and groups can draw to develop new ideas, products, or businesses
people change
a change in the attitudes and behaviors of a few employees in the organization
culture change
a major shift in the norms, values, attitudes, and mindset of the entire organization
organization development (OD)
the application of behavioral science techniques to improve an organization's health and effectiveness through its ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationships, and increase learning and problem-solving capabilities
team building
a type of OD intervention that enhances the cohesiveness of departments by helping memebrs learn to function as a team
survey feedback
a type of OD intervention in which questionnaires on organizational climate and other factors are distributed among employees and their results reported back to them by a change agent
large-group intervention
an approach that brings together participants from all parts of the organization (and may include key outside stakeholders as well) to discuss problems or opportunities and plan for major change
unfreezing
the stage of organization development in which participants are made aware of problems to increase their willingness to change their behavior
change agent
an OD specialist who contracts with an organization to facilitate change
changing
the intervention stage of organization development in which individuals experiment with new workplace behavior
refreezing
the reinforcement state of organization development in which individuals acquire a desired new skill or attitude and are rewarded for it by the organization
performance gap
a dispartiy between existing and desiret performance levels
force-field analysis
the process of determining which forces drive and which resist a proposed change
human-resource management (HRM)
activities undertaken to attract, develop, and maintain an effective workforce within an organization
human capital
the economic value of the knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees
international human-resource management (IHRM)
a subfield of human-resource mangement that addresses the complexity that results from recruting, selecting, developing, and maintaining a diverse workforce on a global scale
discrimination
the hiring or promoting of applicants based on criteria that are not job relevant
affirmative action
a policy that requires employers to take positive steps to gaurantee equal employment opportunities for people within protected groups
contingent workers
people who work for an organization, but not on a permanent or full-time basis, including temporary placements, contracted professionals, and leased employees
contingent professionals
people, mostly retirees, who bring needed expertise
telecommuting
using computers and telecommunications equipment to perform work from home or another remote location
rightsizing
intentionally reducing the company's workforce to the point where the number of employees is deemed to be right for the company's current situation
matching model
an employee selection approach in which the organization and the applicant attempt to match each other's needs, interests, and values
human-resource planning
the forecasting of human-resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected job vacancies
recruiting
the activities or practices that define the desired characteristics of applicants for specific jobs
job analysis
the systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job
job description
a concise summary of the specific tasks and responsibilities of a particular job
job specification
an outline of the knowledge, skills, education, and physical abilities needed to adequately perform a job
realistic job preview
a recruiting approach that gives applicants all pertinent and realistic information about the job and the organization
selection
the process of determining the skills, abilities, and other attributes a person needs to perform a particular job
application form
a device for collecting information about an applicant's education, previous job experience, and other background characteristics
employment test
a written or computer-based test designed to measure a particular attribute such as intelligence or aptitude
assessment center
a technique for selecting individuals with high managerial potential based on their performance on a series of simulated managerial tasks
on-the-job training (OJT)
a type of training in which an experienced employee "adopts" a new employee to teach him or her how to perform job duties
corporate university
an in-house training and education facility that offers broad-based learning opportunities for employees
mentoring
when an experienced employee guides and supports a less-experienced employee
coaching
a method of directing, instructing, and training a person with the goal of developing specific mangement skills
performance appraisal
the process of observing and evaluating an employees's performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback to the employee
360-degree feedback
a process that uses multiple raters, including self-rating, to appraise employee performance and guide development
stereotyping
placing an employee into a class or category based on one or a few traits or characteristics
halo effect
a type of rating error that occurs when an employee receives the same rating on all dimensions regardless of his or her performance on individual ones
behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)
a rating technique that relates an employee's performance to specific job-related incidents
compensation
monetary payments (wages, salaries) and nonmonetary goods and commodities (benefits, vacations) used to reward employees
job evaluation
the process of determining the value of jobs within an organization through an examination of job content
wage and salary surveys
surveys that show what other organizations pay incumbents in jobs that match a sample of "key" jobs selected by the organization
pay for performance
incentive pay that ties at least part of compensation to employee effort and performance
exit interview
an interview conducted with departing employees to determine the reasons for their termination
diversity
all the ways in which employees differ
managing diversity
creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational or group performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized
prejudice
the tendency to view people who are different as being deficient
discrimination
when someone acts out their prejudicial attitudes towards people who are the targets of their prejudice
stereotyping
associating a rigid, exaggerated, and irrational belief with a particular group of people
stereotype threat
a psychological experience of a person who, usually engaged in a task, is aware of stereotype about his or her identity group that suggest he or she will not perform well on that task
ethnocentrism
the belief that one's own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures
glass ceiling
invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions
mentor
higher-ranking organizational member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protege's professional career
organizational behavior
an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations
organizational citizenship
work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success
attitude
a cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way
job satisfaction
a postive attitude toward one's job
organizational commitment
loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization
cognitive dissonance
a condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict
perception
the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information
perceptual selectivity
the process by which individuals screen and select the various stimuli that vie for their attention
perceptual distortions
errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process
stereotyping
the tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual
projection
the tendency to see one's own personal traits in other people
perceptual defense
the tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas, objects, or peopel that are threatening to them
attribution
judgments about what cause a person's behavior-either characteristics of the person or of the situation
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors
self-serving bias
the tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one's successes and the contribution of external factors to one's failures
personality
the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment
Big Five personality factors
dimensions that describe an individual's extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
locus of control
the tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failrure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally)
authoritarianism
the belief that power and status difference should exist within the organization
Machiavellianism
the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
personality test that measures a person's preference for introversion vs extroversoin, sensation vs intuition, thinking vs feeling and judging vs perceiving
person-job fit
the extent to which a person's ability and personality match the requirements of a job
learning
a change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience
stress
a physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual
type A behavior
behavior pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work
type B behavior
behavior pattern that lacks type A characteristics and includes a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle
role ambiguity
uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role
role conflict
incompatible demands of different roles