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PSY 260 Exam 2 Study Guide (completed)
Unit 2 book and lecture content
Terms in this set (52)
24 month language
Multiword sentences. Half the toddler's utterances are two or more words long
nutrition in babies
-breast is best
-Malnutrition can stunt growth (prevent children from growing to a normal height)
Gross Motor Skills
Sit unsupported: 6 months
Stands holding on: 7.4 months
Crawls: 8 months
Stands not holding: 10.8 months
Walking well: 12 months
Walk backward: 15 months
Run: 18 months
Jump up: 26 months
fine motor skills
-Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing or picking up a coin
-Hand and finger movement are very important in our society
-Mouth skills (such as pronouncing words or whistling) also develop, but we teach/reward these skills less
The biologically based core of individual differences in style of approach and response to the environment that is stable across time and situations
(Piaget sensorimotor substages) Stage 4
(8 months-1 year): New Adaptation and Anticipation
-Babies may ask for help (fussing, pointing, gesturing) to
accomplish what they want
-Children begin to have and pursue goals
-Adaptation becomes more complex and innovative
(Piaget sensorimotor substages) Stage 3
(4-8 months): Making Interesting Sights Last
-Infants are attempting to produce exciting experiences
-For example, the rattle
-Certain stimuli can elicit active effort for interaction
(Piaget sensorimotor substages) Stage 2
(1-4 months): First Acquired Adaptations
-Reflexes further adjust to whatever responses they elicit
-Cognitive adaptation occurs: old patterns are repeated if they produce desirable results (assimilation)
-New patterns are created if necessary
(Piaget sensorimotor substages) Stages 1
-The Stage of Reflexes (sucking, grasping, staring, listening)
-Sensation leads to perception, which leads to cognition, which leads back to sensation
-Much of this change occurs through what behaviorists would call classical and operant conditioning
Parents and child sleep together in same room (Co-sleeping on the rise in the US)
12 month language
First spoken words that are recognizably part of the native language
underdeveloped hippocampus and cortex areas result in lack of long-term memory before ages 3-4
the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
Sight at Birth
Newborns are legally blind. They can only focus on things between 4 and 30 inches away
Hearing at Birth
Newborns are sensitive to sounds.
Perception at Birth
1 year old emotions
Separation anxiety is normal at age 1, intensifies at age 2, and usually subsides after that.
sudden infant death syndrome
a person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people.
the sequence of language development is the same worldwide
10-12 month language
Comprehension of simple words; speech- like intonations; specific vocalizations that have meaning to those who know the infant well. Deaf babies produce first signs.
6-10 months language
Babbling, including both consonant and vowel sounds repeated in syllables
3-6 month language
New sounds-squeals, growls, vocal sounds
2 month language
A range of meaningful noises-cooing, fussing, crying, laughing
Reflexive communication-cries, movements, facial expressions
-Anger and fear become less frequent and more focused.
-Laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating.
-Temper tantrums may appear.
9 month emotions
Fear in response to some person, thing, or situation (not just being startled)
6 months emotions
Anger is evident, usually triggered by frustration.
3 months emotions
-Curiosity becomes evident as infants respond to
objects and experiences that are new but not too novel.
-Happiness is expressed by the social smile.
-Newborns are happy and relaxed when fed and when drifting off to sleep.
-They cry when they are hungry, scared, tired, or hurt.
Touch and Pain at birth
Scientists are still not sure to what extent babies feel pain
Tasting and smelling at birth
Both function at birth and develop rapidly
13-18 months language
slow growth of vocabulary, up to 50 words
21 month language
First two-word sentences
Sleeping in a crib in own room
Where a baby sleeps in a crib in its own room
Parents and child sleep together in the same
bed (SIDS is twice as likely while bed-sharing)
Some children cannot be vaccinated (newborns, fetuses, those with immune system deficiencies) When parents choose not to vaccinate, they are putting those
that cannot vaccinate at increased risk. side effects.
The idea that an object continues to exist after it is no longer visible
Mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation
The response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus
a type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return. 5-10%
a pattern of attachment in which an infant's anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion. 10-20%.
attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy. 50-70%.
a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return. 10-20% of babies.
an affectional tie between an infant and a caregiver that binds them together and has lifelong effects
Early parent-child interactions requiring split-second timing.
18 month language
Naming explosion-three or more words learned per day. Much variation
language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ, especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions
the ability to empathize and understand the emotions of others
opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our capabilities to perform functional activities
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
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