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Arts and Humanities
Introductions and Conclusions
Terms in this set (127)
Which of the following are objectives of the introduction?
Establishing your credibility as a speaker
Revealing the topic of your speech
Getting the attention and interest of the audience
Which actions should you take as you start your presentation?
Wait until the audience has quieted down to begin speaking
Establish eye contact with the audience before you begin speaking
Juan is speaking at a senior center about the advantages of buying items online. Knowing that many of his listeners no longer drive, Juan makes a point of mentioning in his introduction that buying online is convenient and eliminates the need to go to a store. What technique for capturing his audience's attention has Juan used?
Relating the topic to the audience
Karissa is giving a speech about malaria to her class. In her introduction she says, "According to the World Health Organization, about 3.4 billion people—almost one-half the world's population—are at risk for contracting malaria." Karissa is capturing the audience's attention by
stating the importance of her topic.
If you begin your speech by startling your audience with a provocative or shocking statement, you should be certain that this statement is
relevant to your speech topic.
Which part of a speech establishes rapport with the audience and boosts the speaker's confidence if done effectively?
Chati is giving a speech about food from Thailand, where he was born. His audiences consists of his classmates, most of whom grew up in the United States. He introduces the lecture by mentioning that one of the foods he misses most from Thailand is a fruit called durian. He says, "Many people from Southeast Asia, me included, call durian the king of fruits, both because of its large size and its delicious flavor. However, the sharp spikes covering its skin is not the reason why durian is banned from hotels and public transportation in some places." What is Chati's purpose with this introduction?
To arouse the curiosity of his listeners to gain their attention
What are common ways of using the introduction to keep the attention of the audience?
Startle the audience.
Arouse the curiosity of the audience.
State the importance of the topic.
Tony is giving a presentation about needed repairs to the exterior of the small condo building where he lives. He is speaking to other residents at a meeting in the building. In introducing his presentation, he notes how the building's appearance can directly affect the property value of each of their condos. How has Tony gained interest for his presentation?
He has related the topic to his audience.
Megan is giving a speech on the best way to bathe a dog. Which of the following statements would provide the most effective way for her to open her speech and capture the audience's attention?
How many of you have ever owned a dog that got dirty?
One way to gain your audience's interest is to ______ your topic.
state the importance of
Erica begins her speech by saying, "Men in the audience: please stand up. Now I'll ask every other man, starting from this side of each row, to please sit down. Thank you. Those of you still standing represent 1 out of every 2 men in the class. As it happens, that is the proportion of men who will develop some type of invasive cancer in his lifetime." Erica has captured her listeners' attention by
startling the audience.
Ben, a former active street-gang member, is now a well-respected leader in a community center in Chicago. In a speech seeking support for the center from a group of area businesses, which of the following would be the most attention-getting way for him to begin his talk?
"I am not who you think I am."
If you are unable to capture the attention and interest of your audience during the speech introduction, you
risk losing the audience.
Nathan asks his audience a rhetorical question. What does he expect from his listeners?
He expects them to answer his question in their heads.
Which of the following statements is true about using an attention-getting quotation to get the interest of the audience in your speech?
The quotation should be relatively short.
Which of the following types of stories would be effective for use in the introduction to a speech?
A little-told story about how someone who is now famous overcame difficulties to achieve success
A story about how you learned something surprising about someone close to you
A story about how a group you were with on a trip saved someone from serious injury or death
Ahn begins her speech by saying, "Most of us have, at one time or another, belonged to a group that felt like family. This group probably had certain expectations for how you acted, maybe what you wore, even what you believed. But did this group dictate your every move? Did other members try to stop you from talking to your family or forbid you from going home? For five years my cousin Deidre experienced control like this. Who would impose these kinds of rules on another person? The answer: a cult." Ahn has captured her audience's attention by appealing to their
Latifah begins her speech by asking, "Have you ever been walking down the street when suddenly you begin to feel lightheaded? Have you ever been standing in a store and had your vision go blurry? Have you ever been in a restaurant and for no reason break into a sweat?" Why does Latifah ask multiple questions?
She is drawing the listeners deeper into the speech.
Morgan begins her speech by saying, "In Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet, Juliet says, 'A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.' When she says this, what she means is that the names of things do not matter. What really matters is what things are. I believe this same concept can be applied to dogs. A lot of people automatically say that pit bulls are dangerous without taking their training or individual personalities into account."
What tactic has Morgan used to capture her audience's attention?
Beginning with a brief quotation
If you were giving a speech on prostate cancer, which of the following would be a good way to begin the speech and capture the audience's attention?
Telling a story about someone who has suffered from the illness
True or false: Visual aids in a speech should be used only while presenting the main points in the body of the speech
Which of the following is a major objective of the introduction of a classroom speech?
To reveal the topic
What are reasons that speakers should pause for a moment after using a rhetorical question?
The pause adds dramatic impact.
The pause gives the question time to sink in.
If you were giving a speech on exercise, what would be good ways to establish credibility and goodwill in your introduction?
Sharing how much experience you have with the subject of exercise
Expressing your desire for the audience to be healthy
A ______ statement identifies the main points to be discussed in the body of a speech.
What are recommended guidelines for using visual aids in the introduction of a speech?
They should be in good taste.
They should be chosen strategically.
They should relate directly to the speech topic.
Mari gives the following introduction for her speech on Yellowstone National Park: "I love the outdoors. Have you ever just sat outside and listened to the birds? It's extremely peaceful and a great way to unwind after a long week at work or school. A park, particularly a national park with a campground, is a perfect place to get out and enjoy the outdoors." Which of the following is true of Mari's introduction?
It does not reveal the topic.
The audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind is called
Svetlana is giving a speech in which she advocates for an increase in the US budget for foreign aid. Which of the following speech openers would be a good way for her to capture her audience's attention?
According to Chris Santos, a researcher for the World Food Organization, almost 500 million people depend on foreign aid.
Desta is giving a speech on building a garden and wants to make sure that she includes a preview statement in her introduction. Which of the following would be a good example of a preview for her speech?
Today I would like to discuss the steps for building your dream garden, including planning the layout, installing features, and planting greenery.
What is the credibility of a speaker?
The audience's perception that the speaker is qualified to speak on the topic of the speech
Xander is giving a speech on the negative effects of caffeine. He knows that most of his listeners are daily coffee or tea drinkers and that they will resist his suggestions to cut back on caffeine. Which of the following statements would be an effective way for Xander to establish goodwill in the introduction to his speech?
Don't worry, I'm not going to suggest cutting out caffeine altogether. I would never make you give up your morning cup of coffee.
What is a recommended guideline to follow when starting your speech?
Don't start talking immediately.
Cassidy has started discussing the first main point of her speech on growing orchids, but during the introduction she did not tell her listeners what the topic is. Which of the following statements is likely true about the audience?
The audience will be confused about what they are being told.
The audience will not try to put much effort into following the speech.
Todd is giving a speech on the importance of investing. During his speech, he tells the audience that he has a degree in finance and has worked for a major brokerage for 10 years. What has Todd done by sharing this information?
Established his credibility
For her preview statement in a speech on credit card debt, Michelle said, "I have struggled, as I'm sure others in this group have, with credit card debt, and that is what I wish to speak about this morning. Credit card debt is one of the major problems facing the American consumer today. According to government sources, the credit card delinquency rate (that is, the percentage of credit card holders more than 90 days late in their payments) has risen 15% this year." Which of the following is a typical function of a preview statement that Michelle did not provide?
Listing the main points of the speech
True or false: One of the major functions of the conclusion of a speech is to establish your credibility with the audience.
What should you try to achieve by practicing the introduction to your speech?
The ability to maintain strong eye contact
A smooth delivery
Which of the following phrases are examples of verbal cues that signal the end of a speech?
Let me end by saying
What are major objectives of the introduction of a speech?
To generate goodwill
To establish your credibility
During her introduction Irene says, "Today I would like to discuss tips for building an audience for your blog, including choosing relevant and interesting material, participating in the blogging community, and getting others to link to your content." What has Irene accomplished?
Previewed the body of her speech
Which of the following are functions of the conclusion of a speech?
To let the audience know you are ending
To reinforce the audience's understanding or commitment to the central idea
Which of the following are recommended guidelines for the preparation of a speech introduction?
Make note of any possible introductory materials you see during research.
Keep the introduction relatively brief.
Be creative and experiment with two or three different openings.
A conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading gradually is called a ______ ending.
What is an essential function of the conclusion?
To reinforce the central idea of the speech
What is term for the audience's perception of how well a person is qualified to speak on a given topic?
A good way to reinforce the central idea in the conclusion of your speech is to
summarize your speech.
Ending with ______ is the most effective option for reinforcing the central idea in the conclusion of a speech.
What are major functions of the conclusion of a speech?
Reinforcing the audience's understanding of the central idea
Letting the audience know you are ending the speech
Which of the following is an effective way to reinforce the central idea in the conclusion of your speech?
Making a dramatic statement
You give your speech psychological unity when you use the conclusion to reinforce the central idea by referring to the _______ .
A major function of the conclusion of a speech of persuasion is to reinforce the audience's commitment to the central _____
Pablo is giving a speech on his favorite book. He finishes his presentation by saying, "The finesse with which the author handled the conflict between the two main characters really solidified The Hidden Mind as my favorite book. William Caller is obviously a talented writer whose work will continue to entertain and challenge readers." Why is Pablo's conclusion not effective?
He did not signal the end of the speech.
What is the name of the element of a conclusion that spells out what the central idea and the main points of the speech were?
Which of the following is not a tip for preparing the conclusion of your speech?
Prepare a long conclusion.
Sonia is preparing a speech about the health benefits of adding more fresh fruits and vegetables to the diet despite the convenience of chips, energy bars, and other processed foods. Which of the following would be the most forceful conclusion to her speech?
As writer Michael Pollan has said, "If it came from a plant, eat it; if it was made in a plant, don't."
Annie is giving a speech on the dangers of drinking and driving and wants to end on an especially dramatic note to reinforce the serious consequences. Which of the following is a dramatic statement that fits Annie's goal?
Maybe you think you can get away with drunk driving, but you can't. Just hope you're caught before you hurt someone.
Cambrianne tells Juan about her new dog, a canine named Skippy. Discussing her new pet, Cambrianne is using the ______ meaning of the word dog.
Miriyam begins her persuasive speech on the need for tougher animal cruelty laws by telling a story about a puppy named Sam whose legs were broken when his owner threw him out of a moving car. Which of the following would be an effective way for her to give her speech psychological unity in her conclusion?
Think back to Sam, the puppy I mentioned in the introduction. He eventually healed and lives a happy life, but not every animal is so lucky.
Tara is giving a speech on the how to get a U.S. passport for the first time. During her speech, she tells the audience the requirements for making an application and then the steps that must be followed. In her conclusion, she begins by saying, "In conclusion, when you apply for a passport, you will need proof of citizenship, a photo ID, a filled-out application form, and a photo that meets specific requirements. When you present these items at an acceptance facility, you will also need to pay a fee." How is Tara meeting the major objectives of a conclusion?
She has signaled the end of her speech.
She has given a summary of the main points of the speech.
Which of the following are tips for preparing the conclusion of a speech?
Work out your conclusion in detail.
Do not be long-winded.
Andre is almost finished with his speech on the importance of racially and ethnically inclusive politics. Which of the following would be an example of an effective concluding statement?
As Martin Luther King, Jr., once said, '"We may have all come on different ships, but we're in the same boat now."
The meaning of a word that elicits an emotional response from a listener is the word's ______ meaning.
Fergus is giving a speech on the importance of getting a home inspection before buying a house. In his introduction, he tells a story about his uncle, who refused to get an inspection because he thought it was too expensive but later had to spend thousands after the faulty electrical wiring started a fire in the kitchen. In his conclusion, Fergus refers to this story as a final way to reinforce his central idea. Fergus has
given his speech psychological unity.
Which of the following is the most likely to weaken the credibility of a speaker?
Using language inaccurately
Which of the following are strategies for improving the clarity of a speech?
Eliminate verbal clutter.
Use familiar words.
To make your speech clear and understandable, use words with which the audience will be
Consider the vague statement, "The guy said your vehicle would be ready in a while after a small problem is fixed." Which of the following revisions puts this sentence in the most concrete terms?
"Pete said your truck will be ready at 3 p.m. He needs to replace a cracked hose in the cooling system."
To avoid clutter, speakers should eliminate
redundant adjectives and adverbs.
The speech excerpt, "If you want to produce a prevalent brownie, you must use superseding chocolate," illustrates which of the following?
The language is not used accurately.
True or false: Including rhythm and vivid imagery in your speech will make it more interesting for your listeners.
In her speech, Vanessa stated, "It is important that leaders are not overly autonomous or merely satisficing when using a combinatorial rather than positional decision-making process." What mistake did she make in her language choice?
She did not emphasize clear, familiar language.
Hiro gave a speech on the plight of an endangered bird species. After the speech, an audience member thanked him and explained that, despite having never heard of the bird prior to the speech, she now had a very clear mental picture of the bird's habits and could "almost hear the bird calling to its mate." Given this response, Hiro's speech most likely included
During his speech, Ari quoted article 1, section 9, of the U.S. Constitution to his class without further explanation: "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed." In what ways did Ari not follow rules of good language?
He did not use words likely to be familiar to the audience.
He did not use language clearly.
Which of the following are benefits concrete words have that abstract words lack?
Concrete words can be easier to recall.
Concrete words are clearer.
The best time to search for and eliminate clutter from a speech is
after the final draft of the speech has been prepared.
Marcee will be speaking about a trip she took to Africa to help build wells in villages with limited access to clean water. Marcee wants to use vivid language in order to move her audience emotionally. Which of the following is her best option?
Detailed descriptions of how the villagers reacted to the new wells
Devin is writing a speech for science class about the Cretaceous period, and he wants to give his audience vivid mental images of the specific sights, sounds, and smells of the time period. To do so, Devin should use
Which of the following is likely to engage the audience's five senses?
Which words distinguish a simile from a metaphor?
Galena is giving a speech on a play she recently saw, and she wants to use concrete language to help her listeners feel like they are watching the play with her. Which of the following examples best accomplishes this goal?
"The murmurs of the audience quiet as the room dims, and a spotlight illuminates a tall, brown-haired man in a business suit."
What method for making a speech more vivid did Sylvia use when she said, "His nose was sharp and pointed like a knife."
Which of the following should be avoided in order to improve the clarity of a speech?
Obscure technical terms
Which of the following is an example of a metaphor?
The earth is a blue marble spinning in space.
Which of the following is a method for reducing verbal clutter in a speech?
Record the speech and listen to it for wasted or distracting words that can be removed.
Which of the following statements about the relationship between rhythm and meaning is true?
Rhythm enhances the meaning of language.
Which of the following is a technique that creates rhythm in a speech?
Which of the following are benefits of using repetition to create rhythm?
Emphasizing a single idea by stating it more than once
Unifying a sequence of ideas
Creating a strong emotional effect
What method of creating imagery did Lana use when she said, "He slithered into town quietly so that no one would notice when he dug in his fangs and slowly poisoned their minds."
What method of creating rhythm did Miguel employ when he said, "In Venice and Paris, in London and Berlin, all of Europe watched with anticipation."
Which of the following rhythmic techniques most often relies upon stating in close succession a series of different words that share an initial consonant sound?
Why is it important to avoid clichéd similes, such as "busy as a bee," when giving a speech?
They make the speaker appear dull, and they bore the audience.
The primary aim of antithesis is to create rhythm by
juxtaposing contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.
Using the same words to start a series of successive sentences is a rhythmic technique known as
What method of creating imagery did Jeremy use when he said, "The elderly woman's fingers were thin, gnarled branches, twisting oddly from the stem of her palms."
Select the word that best continues the pattern of alliteration in the following sentence: "For us to achieve lasting change, we must constantly petition the government, we must poke, prod, and
In the Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln said, "The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here." What method for creating rhythm did he use?
True or false: As long as language is accurate, clear, and vivid, it will be appropriate to use in any speech.
Joyce, a college student, used the words "dudes" and "you guys" when addressing her school's faculty about her concerns. Which are true of these word choices?
She did not use language appropriate to the audience.
She did not use language that was appropriate to the occasion.
How does rhythm help create more vivid speeches?
It reinforces and enhances the impact of the speaker's words.
When instructing her local Girl Scout Brownie troop, which consisted of seven- and eight-year-olds, Sadie discussed balancing the group's bank account and making sure their acquisitions were all clearly indicated. What language guideline did she violate?
Language must be appropriate to the audience.
Maria is giving a speech on inexpensive vacationing to a group of seniors and says the following: "A rad place to find cheap flights is on Web sites like Kayak or Orbitz. There y'all can easily compare different flights from different carriers. Be sure to look out for deals on first class, too. They're still loads more expensive than coach, but YOLO, right?" Which of the following did Maria do in her speech?
She failed to use appropriate language.
Winston Churchill once said, "We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender." Which of the following did he use to achieve rhythm in this passage?
Ben is giving a speech in his chemistry class in which he describes a recent experiment he conducted. Which of the following language should he use in his speech?
Which guideline did Henry violate when he chose to make several off-color jokes during his speech welcoming new employees to the company?
Use language appropriate to the occasion.
Which of the following are used to create rhythm in a speech?
Choice and Arrangement of Words
Listening to effective speakers and blending their techniques into your own personal style is a good way of ensuring your language is
appropriate to the speaker.
Which of the following is a good rule of thumb to follow when considering whether language is appropriate to an audience?
When in doubt—don't.
True or false: Audiences expect speakers to use inclusive language.
Tanya, a web development expert, is preparing to give a speech at a conference on the future of Internet technologies. Knowing that some of the attendees would have very little experience in Web development, she decided to use plain language rather than complicated technical jargon. In this case, Tanya made her speech appropriate to the
What guidelines for effective language use did Renee violate when she said, "Tell your insurance agent about any construction done to your home so he can adjust your policy"?
Avoid generic "he."
Avoid stereotyping jobs by gender.
Jess is the coach of a youth basketball team, and she gave several speeches to her team during a recent game. When she described how to run a certain play, she used plain and direct language. When she wanted to motivate her team to play to the best of their abilities, she used elevated language filled with metaphors and alliteration. In this example, Jess was using language that is appropriate to the
Gary is assigned to speak at his school about the 1986 disaster in which the Challenger space shuttle exploded, so he watches the speech President Reagan gave after the tragedy. What are the best ways for Gary to use that speech to ensure his own language will be appropriate to the speaker?
Try to adapt President Reagan's clarity, blending it with his own style.
Study President Reagan's techniques for achieving vividness.
Which of the following is the most inclusive phrase?
Which aspect of United States society does inclusive speech reflect?
Growing respect for diversity
True or false: The word waitress is an inclusive term.
During his speech, Tim said, "Tell your veterinarian about any sudden changes in your animal. He needs to know all the details before he can make a diagnosis." Which guideline for effective language did he violate?
Avoid the generic use of "he."
At a retirement party for a colleague, Eric used plain, unemotional language to describe his colleague's time with the company. Afterward, a coworker mentioned that the speech did not pay proper tribute to how much the departing colleague meant to the company. Which rule of using language appropriately did Eric violate?
Appropriateness to the topic
What guideline for effective language did Kathy violate when in 2018 she referred to her cousin, who cannot walk and thus uses a wheelchair, as "handicapped" rather than "disabled"?
Use names that groups use to identify themselves.
What principle of language use did Jeri violate when she said to her class, "Man continues to enjoy his place in the universe"?
Avoid using "man" when referring to both men and women.
Which of the following words is an example of stereotyping jobs by gender?
What guideline for effective language did Joni follow when she said, "All the performers in the show were little transgender"?
Use names that groups use to identify themselves.
Which of the following guidelines for language use does this violate? "Someone who wants to travel the world could apply for a job as a stewardess."
Avoid stereotyping jobs by gender.
Which of the following is an example of the use of pluralization to avoid use of the generic "he"?
When public speakers use inclusive language, they show respect to all groups.
Erin is preparing a speech that includes discussion of the expected effects of a policy proposal on members of a specific ethnic group. Which term should she apply to the group?
The term used by members of the group
In her speech, Helen said, "When the firemen got to the burning home, the flames were leaping 10 feet above the roof." What language error did Helen make?
She stereotyped all firefighters as men.
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