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Plants and Photosynthesis

Biology Cornell Notes
STUDY
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Mosses belong to the group of plants known as the
bryophytes
In a moss, the dominant generation is that we see is the _, while in a gymnosperm the most dominant stage is the_.
gametophyte...sporophyte
Plants never stop growing. This is due to _ at the tips of their chutes and roots.
apical meristems
The classification of plants, in order that evolution is thought to have occured, is
bryophyte, seedless vascular, gymnosperm, angiosperm
Which of the following statements regarding ferns is true?
Ferns are classified as seedless vascular plants.
All plants carry out the life cycle of alternation of generations. The haploid version of the plant is called _, while the diploid version is called _.
gametophyte; sporophyte
The type of life cycle seen in plants is called
alternation of generations.
Which of the following characteristics tends to limit bryophytes and seedless vascular plants to habitats that are relatively moist?
dependence on the presence of water for reproduction.
Gas exchange in most land plants occurs through structures called
stomata
The increase in girth associated with production of wood and bark in trees occurs as a consequence of
secondary growth
Under which of the following weather conditions would transpiration be most rapid?
hot, dry weather
In plants, the vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called
phloem
In plants, the vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called
xylem
Which type of vascular tissue cell in plants is dead at maturity?
vessel elements
The _, a zone of rapid cell divisions that produces growth, is found at primary root and stem tips.
apical meristem
The increase in height associated with the formation of a seedling occurs as a consequence of
primary growth
Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP, NADPH, O2
The process that makes ATP is chemiosmosis. This occurs in both mitochondria and chloroplasts.
True
Plants make glucose and other carbohydrates because it is more stable (can hold more energy) than ATP or NADPH.
True
Why are most plants green?
Chlorophyll reflects green light.
A packet of light energy is called a
photon.
Carotene is another plant pigment that absorbs light in the orange portion of the visible spectrum.
False
Which of the following are produced during the Calvin Cycle?
G3P, ADP, NADP+
Grana in chlorplasts could be described as a stack of sacks while thylakoids are one of those sacks that makes up the stacks.
True
Sunlight is a type of _ energy.
electromagnetic
Which of the following colors contributes the least energy to photosynthesis?
green
Chloroplasts contain dislike membranous sacs arranged in stacks called
grana
Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP, NADPH, O2
How do the reaction centers of photosystem I and II differ?
Each preferentially absorbs slightly different wave lengths of light
Why are most plants green?
Chlorophyll reflects green light
The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem I are replaced by electrons from
photosystem II.
The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from
water
Which of the following photosynthetic pigments can be found at the photosystem reaction center?
chlorophyll a
The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem II are replaced by electrons from
H2O
What is the mechanism to reduce the effects of photorespiration in C4 plants?
They separate carbon fixation and sugar production physically.
Which of the following are produced during the Calvin Cycle?
G3P, ADP, NADP+
Ribulose Biphosphate is created during
Regeneration of the CO2 Acceptor phase
The addition of oxygen to RuBP by rubisco to form a two-carbon product that is then broken down by the cell to carbon dioxide and water defines
photorespiration
What is the main adaptive advantage of the C4 and CAM photsynthesis strategies over the C3 strategy?
They help the plant conserve water and synthesize glucose efficiently under hot, dry conditions.
Photorespiration
is an evolutionary relic from when atmospheric O2 levels were low and did not interfere with rubisco.
Carbon fixation
occurs when carbon and oxygen from CO2 are incorporated into an organic molecule.
What is the mechanism used to reduce the effects of photorespiration in CAM plants?
They separate carbon fixation and sugar production by time.
ATP and NADPH are used during the
Reduction Phase
What are the conditions that lead to photorespiration?
all of the above (sunny, dry, and hot)