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52 terms

Medical Terminology (Chapter 12 symptomatic and diagnostic terms)

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asthenopia
eyestrain
blepharospasm
involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
diplopia
double vision
exophthalmos, exopthalmus
abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
lacrimation
secretion of tears
nystagmus
involuntary, rapid oscillating movement of the eyeball
photophobia
extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from light. usually bright light
scotoma
blind spot in vision
astigmatism
distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light from coming to a single focus on theretina
hyperopia
farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays extend beyond the proper focus on the retina
myopia
nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays fall short of the proper focus on the retina
presbyopia
impaired vision owing to old age loss of accommodation
ambylopia
decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors, or trauma; usually occurs in one eye. also known as lazy eye
aphakia
absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
blepharochalasis
baggy eyelid; overabundance and los of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open
blepharoptosis, ptosis
drooping of the eyelid usually caused by paralysis; usually a result of a stroke
chalazion
chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid
chalaza
hailstone
cataract
opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision, hazy vision
conjunctivitis
pinkeye; imflammation of the conjunctiva
diabetic retinopathy
disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization), leading to scarring and loss of vision . veins rupture, scar tissue, 8-10 years before it begins affecting eyes.
ectropion
outward turning of the rim of the eyelid
entropion
inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
epiphora
abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct
glaucoma
group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
hordeolum
sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
palperbal
latin for eyelid
indurations
hard substances stuck inside the eyelid
diabetic retinopathy
retinal damage that leads to blind spots and caused by diabetes
glaucoma
loss of peripheral vision, eye has greenish or greyish blue
macula lutea
yellow spot on the eye
pseudophakia
eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant
pterygium
fibrous growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea
retinal detachment
separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
strabismus
crossed eyes; condition of misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance
esotropia
right of left eye deviates inwards toward the nose
exotropia
right or left eye deviates outward away from the nose
trichiasis
misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjuctiva or cornea
trichorhhexis
split ends of hair
trichonosis
bugs enter muscles due to eating uncooked or undercooked pork
phoropter
instrument that holds corrective lenses in front of the eye to determine optical correction
Snellen chart
chart for testing distance and visual acuity, sign with letters..
tonometry
use of a tonometer to measure intraocular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma
tonometer
device used to measure intraocular pressure
intraocular pressure
notmal range (18-22). high levels can lead to glaucoma unless you have a thicker sclera
enucleation
excision of an eyeball
laser surgery
use of a laser to make incisions or destroy tissues
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
technique using the excimer laster to reshape the surface of the cornea to correct refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism
intraocular lens (IOL) implant
implantation of an artificial lens to replicate a defecive natural lens
eye irrigation
washing of the eye with water or other fluid
mydriatic (dialation of pupil)
agent that causes dilation of the pupil (ie for certain eye examinations)
miotic
agent that causes the pupil to contract (mio=less)