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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (25)
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770-1827): This German-born composer was the most revolutionary musician of the
Classic and early Romantic eras. He excelled especially at the symphony, sonata, and string quartet, and
brought music to powerful new heights of expression and socio-political influence--despite spending most of his
career in complete deafness. Symphony No. 3 "Eroica" [symphony] 1803-4
1797-1828): He established the German art song (Lied) as an important genre in the 19th
century. He wrote over 600 Lieder, as well as song cycles, symphonies, string quartets, sonatas, and Masses.
Erlkönig [Lied] 1815
(1792-1868): This Italian opera composer wrote several of his earliest works in an early
Romantic style before 1820. Il Barbiere di Siviglia [opera buffa] 1816
(1782-1837): An Irish-born early-Romantic composer, who also worked in Paris, Vienna, and Russia.
He is known for his piano works, especially for inventing the nocturne.
(1809-47): This German musical prodigy is known for his colorful symphonic music, piano
miniatures, songs, and oratorios, and for his work as a conductor--in which he revived interest in the music of JS
Bach. Elijah [oratorio] 1846
(1803-69): This daring French composer and brilliant orchestrator composed the first truly
programmatic symphony. He is known for his operas, songs, and programmatic orchestral works. Symphonie
fantastique [program symphony] 1830
(1810-49): This Polish-born composer-pianist spent most of his brief career in Paris. He is
especially known for his character pieces and piano concertos. Nocturne in E-flat major, Op. 9 No. 2 (1830-32).
He was important as a music critic, but is most remembered for his many songs and
descriptive character pieces for piano. Carnaval, Op. 9 [piano cycle] 1834-35
This Hungarian composer-pianist was perhaps the most spectacular pianist in history. He is
known for his piano music and orchestral symphonic poems. Piano Concerto No. 2 (1839-40)
(1813-83): This German theatrical innovator perfected the use of the Leitmotif in his
Musikdramas, and paved the way for the expanded use of tonality and chromaticism in the 20th century. Der
Ring des Nibelungen [Musikdrama] 1848-74
(1813-1901): This operatic Romantic dramatist can be considered the most important Italian
composer of the 19th century. Rigoletto [opera seria] (1851)
(1839-81): This Russian composer is known as one of "The Five" Russian Romantic
composers who endeavored to make a national musical style for their country. He is known for his opera Boris
Godunov (1868), his symphonic poems such as Night on Bald Mountain (1867), and especially for his piano cycle
Pictures at an Exhibition (1874) that was vividly orchestrated by Maurice Ravel in 1922.
(1838-75): He was the most renowned composer of French grand opera in the mid-Romantic era,
but is most famous for his opera Carmen (1875) [opéra comique]--it is an opéra comique because it has spoken
dialogue and sung French arias--the story of Carmen is actually quite dramatic and tragic.
(1824-84): He was the first important Czech (Bohemian) composer; known for his symphonic
works and operas. The Moldau [symphonic poem] 1874
(1819-80): This French composer wrote nearly 100 operettas between 1850 and 1880 (such
as Orphéee auf enters (Orpheus in Hades,1858). He is remembered mostly for his unfinished masterpiece--the
4-act "opéra fantastique", Les contes d'Hoffmann (The Tales of Hoffmann) 1851.
(1818-93): A French composer known for his grand opera Faust (1859), and his song-setting of
the Ave Maria (based on a work by JS Bach).
(1824-1896): An This late-Romantic Austrian composer is known for his rich, polyphonic and
lengthy symphonies, as well as Masses, and motets. Symphony No. 7 [symphony] 1881-83
(1833-97): He was the most important successor to Beethoven in the 19th century with regard
to both symphonic and chamber music. Symphony No. 3 in F major [symphony] 1883
Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky
(1840-93): This late-Romantic composer was the first internationally-acclaimed Russian
musician. He is known for his colorfully orchestrated ballets, concertos, opera, and symphonic works. The
Nutcracker [ballet] 1892
(1858-1924): This late-Romantic French composer, organist and teacher brought French art song
("mélodie) and chamber music to the highest levels of sophistication. His musical style had a strong influence on
many 20th-century composers. La bonne chanson [song cycle of French mélodie] (1892-94)
(1858-1924): A leading figure in the Italian operatic verismo (true-to-life) movement of the late
19th- early 20th-centuries. La Bohème [verismo opera] (1896)
(c1841-1904): The leading Czech (Bohemian) composer of the Romantic era; known for his
symphonies, chamber works, operas, and songs. Symphony No. 9 ("From the New World") [symphony] 1893
(1860-1911): The most important Austrian composer of the late Romantic era, and one of the
greatest conductors and orchestrators in history. He is known for his highly-expressive and melancholy
orchestrally-accompanied song cycles, and his massive symphonies, which are examples of post-Romanticism.
Kindertotenlieder [song cycle] 1901-04
(1864-1949): This German post-Romantic composer/conductor stretched Wagnerian
Romanticism to greater extremes, and he also ventured into the realm of early expressionism in works such as
Salome (1903). He is known for his intense operas and his symphonic poems. Also Sprach Zarathustra
[symphonic poem] 1896
(1862-1918): The leader of the French "impressionist" movement in music. He was the first to
move into a clearly modern manner of composition--clearly breaking with the Romantic sound dominated by the
style of Wagner. Debussy is best known for his impressionistic piano works, symphonic poems, songs, and the
opera Pelléas et Mélisande. Prélude à l'après d'un faune ("Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun") [symphonic
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