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PSYC 210 MIDTERM
Terms in this set (46)
Which of the following examples depicts continuous, rather than stage-like, development?
Paul's brain has been growing larger and heavier at a regular pace every year since his birth
Which of the following is NOT one of the requirements covered in the slides for a developmental stage?
changes occur over an extended period of time
Dr. Dexter talked about cesarean sections in class today as an example of what theoretical issue?
the influences of nature and nurture upon development are integrated and cannot be easily separated
Classical and operant conditioning are two ways of learning (or training) that are examples of this perspective on children's development.
How did Piaget describe development?
Piaget believed that cognitive development could be described in terms of stages that kids go through between birth and adolescence.
Which of the following theorists thought of children as being "little scientists" who go around testing out their theories about how the world works>
Suppose I am a carrier for a sex-linked developmental abnormality, In other words, one of my X chromosomes carries this trait. My mate does not have this trait. Which of the following best describes the likelihood that we will pass on this trait to our offspring?
If I have a son, he will definitely have the genetic abnormality. If I have a daughter she will definitely be a carrier.
Which of the following examples is a cross-sectional design?
Dr. Silva is interested in the development of grammar he compares audio taped conversations of 3 year-olds, 5 year-olds, and 7-year olds.
In class I discussed the example of twins that are handsome, white, and male. Which of the following best describes how these twins appearance might influence their environments?
Their common appearance makes it more likely that they resemble their parents. Because they resemble their parents they are likely to have similar environments to those of their parents.
Which of the following is true about the relationship between genes and environment?
both answers b and c are correct
(b. Genes and environment work in concert to influence development
c. The relationship between genes and environment is bi-directional)
Height, weight, intelligence and personality are examples of characteristics that demonstrate polygenic inheritance.
Which of the three stages of prenatal development discussed in class is when most of the cells of the body move to the correct places and start forming the major systems of the body?
Embryo: this is when the brain cells are moving to the correct places in the brain
Which of the following factors does NOT influence how a teratogens will impact a developing organism (the correct answer is a complete list, discussed in the powerpoint for this week)
all teratogens effect all babies by creating major deformities that eventually kill them
Which of the following is the main reason discussed on the powerpoint that smoking is related to low birth weights?
Smoking diminishes the oxygen in the mother's blood, which is shared with the fetus. Having less oxygenated blood limits the fetuses ability to grow.
Your friend Nora is 4 months pregnant. She is just barely showing. You go out to lunch with her and she orders a beer to accompany her fish tacos. What kinds of things does your friend Nora need to know about the risks she is taking by consuming alcohol?
Some of the worst impacts of teratogens like alcohol are felt early in the pregnancy. She should really reconsider her choice to drink.
The US is one of the top ten nations in the world for low infant mortality rates. Our industrialized status and access to advanced health care technologies allow us to minimize neonate deaths.
What occurs in the final stage of birth?
Delivery of the placenta
Both small-for-date babies and preterm babies are likely to have low birthweight. What is the difference between these two categories of newborns?
Small-for-date babies are those that weigh less than is normative for newborns of the same gestational age. Preterm babies are born prematurely.
Historically women have given birth squatting or sitting upright. What are some of the benefits for giving birth in this position?
In this position there is better circulation of blood for both mother and baby.
Prenatal development is divided into 3 trimesters of equal length in the same way as is a pregnancy when being discussed from the maternal perspective.
Teratogens tend to affect the developing infant in predictable ways. Which of the following statements correctly captures one of these ways?
The effects of a teratogen on a pregnant woman can be very different from the effects on the developing organism. An illness that is a minor inconvenience for a woman can greatly affect the developing fetus she carries.
Which of the following reflexes babies are born with are permanent?
Blinking: When a bright light is shown, or a loud noise is heard, an infant will blink its eyes.
Which of the following is true of the visual acuity of neonates?
Neonates perceive a world that is less colorful and less in focus than that of the adults. They see best what is 1-2 feet away from them.
Which of the following correctly describes the main findings of the Wormann et al. 20120 study?
Face to face interaction, infant imitation, and the mother's mirroring of infant behaviors all relate to the emergence of the social smile. These factors vary across cultures.
Why do researchers think infants spend more time in REM sleep than adults?
REM sleep seems to be important for the development of the central nervous system.
Which of the following is a good example of the habituation?
Israel is learning the sound of his parents voices. His heart rate calms while he listens to his mother talk. When his uncle begins to speak his heart rate changes as he begins to pay attention to the new stimulus.
Parents who choose to care for their baby through "proximal care", which involves holding the baby for extensive periods. Tend to have babies that...
cry less during the early months of life
The Apgar scale is used to measure an infant's health and is administered a week to two weeks after birth.
Sally is sleeping in her father's arms. Her dad moves and she drops just an inch or two in his arms. Sally throws her arms out as if reaching for something though she is still asleep. What is going on here?
This is the moro reflex
How often do newborns generally want to eat?
Newborns usually want to eat about every 3 hours.
Newborns are born knowing how to breastfeed. when problems with breastfeeding occurs these are generally a sign of poor health on the part of the mother.
Latanya is 18 months old. One day Latanya's mom brought her to work. When her mother's secretary greeted Latanya she looked to her mom. Latanya's mom smiled. Latanya interacted calmly with the secretary. What is going on here?
This is an example of social referencing. Latanya looked to her mother to check if the secretary was a safe, positive person for her to interact with.
Which of the following is NOT true about changes in the development of attention across infancy?
Younger infants take longer to habituate than older children.
Chad sees a stuffed toy cat in the living room that belongs to his cousin. He recognizes the cat because he has seen it other times when he has visited his cousin's house. What is this an example of?
This is an example of implicit memory.
Infants begin to use categorization to understand their worlds. Which of the following is true about how infants categorize?
Categories based on perceptual similarity are created earlier than categories based on conceptual similarity
Symbolic representation occurs in the final stage of Piaget's substages. Which of the following is evidence of symbolic representation?
Dominic grabs a set of playing cards and holds them up to the side of his head and begins to talk as though he were speaking to someone on the phone.
Isabella was a mellow baby. She hardly ever cried and adjusted to new things quickly. She was happy to interact with new people in new situations. What kind of temperament did she most likely have?
Isabella was an easy baby.
Mary Ainsworth had parents bring children in to her research lab and play. Then a stranger came in and played with the child. Next the mother left the room. Then the mother came back and the stranger left. Finally they both left. At the end the mother came back to her child. What was this study testing?
This study tested whether children were securely attached to their mothers.
Self-conscious emotions that require a sense of self such as a pride, guilt, shame, and envy are known as ___________ emotions. These emotions are expressed later than primary emotions and are displayed by young children primary when a caregiver or other adult is present.
What did Bowlby's study find and how did it contradict Freud's claims about attachment?
Bowlby found that the monkeys wanted to be cuddled so much that they chose cuddling over food. This contradicted Freud's claim that attachment was mostly food motivated.
Which of the following explains the difference between primary and secondary intersubjectivity?
In primary intersubjectivity a child is able to focus attention on a caregiver and in secondary intersubjectivity a child is able to focus on a caregiver and what the caregiver is attending to.
What are some linguistic developments most children show before their first birthday?
all of the above
At about 2 years old children start using two or more words together as early sentences. At this point in time they already understand...
That the order of words in the sentence changes the meaning of the sentence. This is the beginning of grammar.
From 18 to 24 months children's vocabulary increase dramatically, this is due in part to "fast-mapping". What is "fast mapping" in language development?
When children realize that every object has a label and proceed to map words onto objects.
A _______________________________ is a single word paired with a gesture or facial expression to combine to create an entire phrase or sentence. For example, this occurs when an infant holds their hands up in the direction of a caregiver and says "Up!", meaning something like, 'Pick me up!'
Morphemes are the smallest unit of language. They consist of short sounds that can change the meaning of words. Which of the following is a developmental phenomenon related to the use of morphemes?
Eight to 9 year-olds use their knowledge of morphemes to create novel words such as knowing that the past tense of "doink" would be "doinked".