Neuro Practical 1

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telencephalon
(1) arises from the prosencephalon
forms the cerebrum
cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system
diencephalon
(2) arises from prosencephalon
forms the thalamus and hypothalamus
mesencephalon
(3) forms the midbrain
metencephalon
(4) arises from the rhombencephalon
forms the pons and cerebellum
myelencephalon
(5) arises from the rhombencephalon
forms the medulla
longitudinal fissure (interhemispheric fissure/sagittal fissure)
(1) separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres
central sulcus
(2) separates frontal and parietal lobes
calcarine fissure
located in the occipital lobe
on the medial surface of the brain
joined by parieto-occipital sulcus
parieto-occipital sulcus
separates parietal and occipital lobes
lateral fissure (sylvian fissure)
separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes
right and left cerebral hemispheres
(5) created by longitudinal fissure
connected by corpus callosum
right and left cerebellar hemispheres
(10) separated by the vermis
frontal lobe
rostral to parietal lobe
dorsal and rostral to temporal lobe
parietal lobe
caudal to frontal lobe
dorsal to temporal and occipital lobes
occipital lobe
caudal to temporal lobe
caudal and ventral to parietal lobe lobe
temporal lobe
ventral to parietal lobe
ventral and caudal to frontal lobe
rostral to occipital lobe
insular cortex
convergence of parietal, temporal, frontal lobes
concealed within lateral fissure
hippocampal formation
(1) limbic system
found in medial temporal lobe
ventral to fornix
caudal to amygdala
parahippocampal gyrus
limbic system
grey matter
surrounds hippocampal formation
cingulate gyrus
limbic system
surrounds corpus callosum dorsally
fornix
limbic system
ventral to corpus callosum
hypothalamus
limbic system
ventral to thalamus
just dorsal to brainstem
thalamus
(3) limbic system
dorsal to midbrain
ventral to fornix
surrounds third ventricle
corpus callosum
(1) connects left and right cerebral hemispheres
dorsal to fornix
septum pellucidum
(2) space between corpus callosum and fornix
separates lateral ventricles
lateral ventricles
(2) frontal horn
body
temporal horn
occipital horn
separated/covered by septum pellucidum
midbrain
(4) caudal to thalamus and hypothalamus
rostral to pons and cerebellum
pons
(5) caudal to midbrain
rostral to medulla
ventral to cerebellum
medulla
(6) caudal to pons
ventral to cerebellum
continuous with spinal cord
tentorium cerebelli
extension of dura mater
separates cortex from cerebellum
falx cerebri
extension of dura mater
descends vertically in longitudinal fissure
between cerebral hemispheres
dura mater
superficial layer of meninges
bone
arachnoid
middle layer of meninges
pia mater
deep layer of meninges
CNS
choroid plexus
produces CSF
found in each ventricle
highly vascular
interventricular foramen (foramen of monro)
connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle
bounded by fornix and thalamus
third ventricle
located between the thalami
cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius)
connects third ventricle with fourth ventricle
fourth ventricle
between pons and cerebellum
continuous with cerebral aqueduct
rostrum (corpus callosum)
(1) rostral/caudal part of corpus callosum
genu (corpus callosum)
(2) most rostral part of corpus callosum
bend
body (corpus callosum)
(3) main part of corpus callosum
splenium (corpus callosum)
(4) most caudal part of corpus callosum
anterior commissure
(A) rostral to fornix
dorsal to hypothalamus
posterior commissure
(B) dorsal to beginning of cerebral aqueduct
epithalamus
dorsal to thalamus
includes pineal body
pineal body (gland)
caudal to posterior commissure
dorsal to cerebellum
mammillary body
small pair
on undersurface of brain
infundibulum
(blue) connection between hypothalamus and posterior pituitary
neurohypophysis (pituitary gland)
connected to infundibulum
caudal to hypothalamus
pulvinar
(2) large area rostral to the geniculates
medial geniculate
(21) present in both hemispheres
more caudal
connection with inferior colliculi
lateral geniculate
(22) present in both hemispheres
more rostral
connection with superior colliculi
precentral gyrus
in frontal lobe
Brodman's areas 4 & 6
rostral to central sulcus
broca's area
in frontal lobe
Brodman's areas 44 & 45
rostral/ventral to precentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus
in parietal lobe
Brodman's areas 3,1,2
caudal to central sulcus
heschel's gyrus
in temporal lobe
Brodman's areas 41 & 42
ventral to lateral fissure
auditory association cortex
in temporal love
Brodman's area 22
surrounds hershel's gyrus ventrally
parahippocampal gyrus
in medial view of temporal lobe
Brodman's area 28
cingulate gyrus
in medial view of temporal lobe
Brodman's areas 23-27
surrounds corpus callosum
primary visual cortex
in occipital lobe
Brodman's area 17
"hamburger patty"
secondary visual cortex
in occipital lobe
Brodman's areas 18 & 19
"buns and lettuce"
basal ganglia
caudate nucleus
putamen
globus pallidus
subthalamic nucleus
substantia nigra
caudate nucleus
(14) forms part of striatum
located near center of brain
lateral to frontal horn of lateral ventricle
putamen
(12) forms part of striatum
forms part of lenticular nucleus
outer portion of basal ganglia
globus pallidus
forms part of lenticular nucleus
medial to putamen
subthalamic nucleus
ventral to thalamus
dorsal to substantia nigra
medial to internal capsule
substantia nigra
(29) caudal to mammillary bodies
ventral to subthalamic nucleus
uncus
rostral to parahippocampal gyrus
ventral to anterior part of fornix
lateral to mammillary bodies
anterior limb (internal capsule)
between caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus
genu (internal capsule)
bend
medial to globus pallidus
posterior limb (internal capsule)
between thalamus and lenticular nucleus
external capsule
thin band of white matter
lateral to putamen
extreme capsule
white matter
lateral to claustrum
claustrum
grey matter
between eternal & extreme capsule
insular cortex
(23) grey matter
lateral to extreme capsule
amygdala
almond shaped
deep within temporal lobe
lateral/ventral to mammillary bodies
rostral end of hippocampus
hippocampus
seahorse
anterior cerebral artery
(3) arise from internal carotid artery
connected by anterior communicating artery
curves around genu of corpus callosum
anterior communicating artery
connects right and left anterior cerebral arteries
middle cerebral artery
(2) arises from internal carotid artery
continues into lateral sulcus
between frontal and temporal lobes
internal carotid artery
(1) gives off middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, and posterior communicating arteries
posterior communicating artery
(4) between internal carotid artery
and posterior cerebral artery
posterior cerebral artery
(11) connected to posterior communicating artery
near anterior portion of basilar artery
basilar artery
(9) runs longitudinally between pons
gives off vertebral arteries and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries
superior cerebellar artery
(10) arise at anterior portion of basilar artery
runs parallel/posterior to posterior cerebral artery
posterior inferior cerebellar artery
(7) branch outward off vertebral artery
posterior spinal artery
branch off vertebral arteries
adjacent to medulla
vertebral artery
(6) continuation of posterior part of basilar artery
gives off anterior/posterior spinal and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries
anterior spinal artery
(13) branches off vertebral arteries
runs between vertebral arteries on anterior medulla
anterior inferior cerebellar artery
(8) branches of basilar artery before vertebral arteries
folia
(6) gyri on medial surface of cerebellum
vermis
(1) connects cerebellar hemispheres
tonsils
paired
on ventral cerebellar surface
surrounded by flocculonodular lobe
superior cerebellar peduncle
(2) on ventral cerebellar/dorsal midbrain surface
medial/rostral
inferior cerebellar peduncle
(4') on ventral cerebellar/dorsal midbrain surface
medial/caudal
middle cerebellar peduncle
(4) on ventral cerebellar/dorsal midbrain surface
lateral/round
largest
anterior cerebellar lobe
rostral/ventral cerebellar lobe
separated by primary fissure
posterior cerebellar lobe
dorsal/caudal cerebellar lobe
separated by primary fissure
flocculonodular cerebellar lobe
(5) surrounds tonsils and middle cerebellar peduncle
arbor vitae
(5) cerebellar white matter
tree
dentate nuclei
in hemi-section of cerebellum
surround 4th ventricle
teeth
superior colliculi
(3) on dorsal midbrain
continuous with lateral geniculate
inferior colliculi
(4) on dorsal midbrain
continuous with medial geniculate
obex
on dorsal view of brainstem
where 4th ventricle funnels into central canal
in caudal medulla
rostral medulla
from inferior pons to obex
caudal medulla
from obex to C1
dorsal median sulcus
(12) splits brainstem longitudinally
posterior
dorsal intermediate sulcus
(11) separates cuneatus and gracilis nuclei
fasciculus cuneatus
lateral column
cuneatus tubercle
(9) lateral
inferior to obex
fasciculus gracilis
medial column
gracilis tubercle
(10) medial
inferior to obex
cerebral peduncles (crus cerebri)
on ventral surface of midbrain
cranial nerve II (optic nerve)
(2) superior to mamillary body
connected by optic chiasm
optic chiasm
(1) between optic nerves
optic tract
(3) from optic chasm to lateral geniculate
interpenduncular fossa
(19) on ventral midbrain
between cerebral peduncles
pyramids
(14) on ventral medulla
decussation of pyramids
(11) between caudal medullas
olive
(9) oval structures on ventral medulla
lateral to pyramids
ventral median fissure
(10) splits brainstem longitudinally
anterior
cerebral peduncles (cross section)
(8) most ventral
substantia nigra (cross section)
(7) anterior to red nucleus
red nucleus (cross section)
(6) large, round structures
periaqueductal gray (PAG)
(2) surrounds cerebral aqueduct
tectum of midbrain (cross section)
posterior portion
Olfactory Nerve (I)
superior to optic nerve
Optic Nerve (II)
inferior to olfactory nerve
superior to occulomotor nerve
Oculomotor Nerve (III)
inferior to optic nerve
superior/medial to trochlear nerve
Trochlear Nerve (IV)
inferior/lateral to occulomotor nerve
superior/medial to trigeminal nerve
Trigeminal Nerve (V)
inferior/lateral to trochlear nerve
superior to facial nerve
Abducens Nerve (VI)
medial to trigeminal nerve
medial to facial nerve
Facial Nerve (VII)
lateral to abducens nerve
superior to vestibulocochlear nerve (slightly)
Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)
inferior to facial nerve (slightly)
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)
inferior to facial and vestibulocochlear nerves
Vagus Nerve (X)
inferior to glossopharyngeal nerve
Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI)
most inferior
Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
medial to vagus nerve
Cervical Enlargement
C5-T1
Lumbar Enlargement
L4-L5
Dorsal and Ventral Rootlets
pre dorsal and ventral roots
Dorsal and Ventral Roots
post dorsal and ventral rootlets
Dorsal Root Ganglion
along vertebral column
Gray Matter
inner portion
White Matter
outer portion
Posterior Spinal Arteries
paired
dorsal
Anterior Spinal Artery
single
runs down spinal cord longitudinally
Cauda Equina
horse tail
Conus Medullaris
end of spinal cord
L1-L2
Filum Terminale
fibrous continuation of conus medullaris
Central Canal
center of cord