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a false sensory perception that has no direct external cause


an individual's state of awareness, including a person's feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions

Circadian rhythm

a regular sequence of biological processes such as temperature and sleep that occurs every 24 hours


a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility


state in which participants become highly receptive and responsive to certain internal and external stimuli


a systermatic narrowing of attention on an image, thought, bodily process, or external object with the goal of clearing one's mind and producing relaxation

Biofeedback (definition)

the process of learning to learning to control bodily states by monitoring th estates to be controlled

Biofeedback (uses)

teach people to control physiological responses, including: brain waves, blood pressure, sweat gland activity, heart rate, skin temperature, muscular control, relaxing techniques

Hypnotic analgesia

a reduction of pain reported by patients after undergoing hypnosis

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

an extremely potent psychedelic drug that produces...

Opiates (morphine, heroin)

decrease pain, decrease attention to real world, unpleasant withdrawal effects as drug's effect wears off

Cannabis sativa (weed, Indian hemp)

active ingredient in marijuana

EEG (electroencephalograph)

a machine used to record the electrical activity of huge portions of the brain

Francis Crick

(theory of purpose of dreams): the brain's way of removing certain unneeded memories (form of mental housekeeping for unnecessary details)

Nathaniel Keitman

(theory of dreaming): "may serve no function whatsoever", unimportant result of stimulating certain brain cells during sleep

Franz Anton Mesmer

first person to study and practice hypnosis/"mesmerism" and "animal magnetism"

Delta waves

brain wave pattern associated with absence of concentrated thought and relaxation

Psychological dependence on drugs/alcohol

without the drug, the person is restless, irritable, uneasy, nervous, and anxious

Physical dependence on drugs/alcohol

person could go into withdrawal since the body is addicted to the drug and needs an increased dosage to get the next high

REM sleep

irregular pulse rate and breathing, dreaming, build efficient learning and memory processes

Stage I Sleep

pulse slows, muscles relax, uneven breathing, irregular brain waves

Stage II Sleep

high-amplitude, low-frequency waves pattern, eyes roll slowly side to side

Stage III Sleep

large-amplitude delta waves approx. every second

Stage IV Sleep

deep sleep, large regular delta waves (usually)

Sleepwalking problems

stress, fatique, use of sedative medicines, heredity

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