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Earth Science Exam study guide
Terms in this set (36)
What do you call differences between members of the same species?
What can a species of similar organisms do?
They can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
Why do scientists combine evidence from fossils, body structure, early development, DNA, and protein structures?
To determine the evolutionary relationship among species
How do most species form?
A group is separated from the rest of the species
Which term refers to similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor?
What is a trait called that helps an organism survive and reproduce?
Which term refers to the process by which individuals are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce?
What concluded that organisms on the Galapagos islands have..
changed over time
Which term refers to a species creating more offspring that can possibly survive?
How does natural selection lead to evolution?
Helpful variations accumulate among surviving members of the species
What did Darwin observe about finches in the Galapagos islands?
Their beaks were adaptations related to the foods the finches ate.
What did Darwin infer from his observations of organisms in South America and the Galapagos islands?
A small number of different plant and animal species had come to the Galapagos islands from the mainland
The gradual change in a species over time is called?
What happens when a community becomes isolated from the rest of its species for many generations?
A new species can form
Which term describes the pattern in which rapid changes occur in a species for short periods followed by a long period of little or no change?
What happens when chemical bonds break and new bonds form?
A chemical change occurs
What is the only sure evidence for a chemical reaction?
The production of a new substance
A chemical reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat is?
One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes?
One year or 365 days
Why does Earth have seasons?
The Earth's axis is tilted as it moves around the sun
In the Southern Hemisphere, when does the summer solstice occur?
When the sun is closest to the Earth
What force attracts objects to each other?
What does the strength of the force of gravity depend on?
The mass and distance of each object
How long is Earth's rotation?
When does an equinox occur?
Earth's axis is parallel to the sun's rays
What do you see from a new moon phase to a full moon phase?
You see increasing amounts of light on the moon
Why are you less likely to see a total solar eclipse than a total lunar eclipse?
Only the moon's umbra covers a small area on Earth's surface
Why do you never see the far side of the moon?
Because the moon rotates once for each revolution around the Earth
What causes tides?
Differences in how much the moon and the sun pull on different parts of the Earth
How large is the moon compared to the Earth?
The moon is % the diameter of the Earth
What do all the inner planets have in common?
They are all small and have rocky surfaces
Aside from earth what inner planet once had liquid water on the surface?
What is distinctive about Jupiter?
It Is the largest most massive planet
What will happen to a group of organisms that are separated from the rest of its species?
For each situation described below, tell whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. Explain your reasoning in terms of the energy of the reactants and products.
A log burns in a fireplace, giving off gases and leaving behind ash, vinegar and baking soda are mixed, new substances form and the solution becomes cooler.
What evidence do scientists have that proves water does exists on Mars at present? What evidence indicates that liquid water exists in Mars in the past?
Rate three other planets, or moon based on the five criteria we discussed in class that might prove life exists somewhere else in our solar system. Justify your choices with evidence from our discussion in class.
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