APUSH Chapter 25 Key Terms

1 / 29
Henry Cabot Lodge
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (29)
Invasion of ManchuriaStarted with a railroad explosion in southern Manchuria (most likely set by Japanese soldiers) and led to the Japanese having conquering the entire region by the end of 1931. From then on, Japan continued further into China and killed thousands of civilians."Good Neighbor Policy"FDR's new approach towards Latin America that expanded on the changes Hoover made (would recognize any sitting government without questioning the means in which it obtained powers). Declared "no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another."Nye CommitteeSenate committee led by Senator Gerald Nye that claimed to produce evidence of profiteering and tax evasion by many corporations during the war, suggesting that bankers had pressured Wilson to intervene in the war so as to protect their loans abroad.Neutrality ActsIn response to Italy preparing to invade Ethiopia and attempt to prevent another European war (as well as US getting dragged into it). Established a mandator arms embargo against both sides in any military conflict and warned Americans against traveling on the ships of warring nations. Now, the "protection of neutral rights" could not again become an excuse for American intervention in a war.Francisco FrancoGeneral Francisco Franco and his Falangists (group like the Italian Fascists) revolted and overthrew the existing government. Was Helped by Hitler and Mussolini. The US (along with Britain and France) offered no assistance to either side."Quarantine Speech"FDR's speech in response to Japan's further invasion of China where he claimed that Japanese and other aggressors should be "quarantined" by the international community in order to prevent the contagion of war from spreading. Public response to the speech was hostile.Panay IncidentJapanese bombed a US gunboat (Panay). The US accepted claims that the incident was an accident, accepted the apologies, and overlooked the attack."appeasement"A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler (especially in the Munich agreement that Adolf Hitler violated unashamedly by annexing all of Czechoslovakia)."cash-and-carry"Wanted to remain neutral but still favored the Allies. Needed to figure out to what extent they would assist the Allies. Made revision to the Neutrality Acts; stated that the U.S. would be able to sell war materials to the nations involved in the war as long as those nations used their own shipment and paid immediately in cash (just like the Neutrality Acts approved earlier but with nonmilitary materials).blitzkrieg"lighting war" launched in the spring of 1940, Germany launched a massive invasion to the west--first attacking Denmark and Norway, later the Netherlands and Belgium, and finally France.Vichy RegimeThe new French regime that assembled (in Vichy) after France fell. Controlled by German occupiers.Destroyer-Base DealRoosevelt determined to supply war materials to Britain. So, he circumvented cash-and-carry provisions and gave England 50 American destroyers in return for right to build American bases on British territory in Caribbean. Also returned factories new airplanes purchased by American military so that British could buy them instead.America First CommitteeNew and powerful isolationist lobby in opposition to the US preparing for war. Had indirect support from a large portion of the Republican Party.Henry WallaceFDR's choice for his vice president in the election of 1940. Wallace was the Agriculture Secretary and was too controversial and liberal for many political leaders at the time.Wendell WillkieRepublican nominee for president in 1940. Had little experience in politics but benefitted form a powerful grassroots movement and support from magazines such as Time and Life. Ran with the same stance of war: keep the US out of the war but would extend generous assistance to the Allies. Lost the election but managed to evoke more public enthusiasm than any Republican candidate in decades."lend-lease"Britain was bankrupt and could no longer meet the "cash and carry" requirements of the Neutrality Acts. A new system called "lend-lease" would allow the federal government to not only sell but also to lend or lease armaments to any nation deemed "pivotal to the defense of the US." Therefore, America could funnel weapons to England on the basis of nor more than Britain's promise to return them when the war was over.Reuben JamesAmerican destroyer hit by Nazi forces in response to US providing arms to Britain and the Soviet Union as well as protecting the flow of goods to those regions. Many American soldiers died.Atlantic CharterAllowed the US to arm its merchant vessels and sail into belligerent ports. US had launched naval war against Germany.Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941. Japanese bombers attacked naval base in Hawaii which was part of a coordinated pattern of attacks against American and British holdings in Asia. Second wave came an hour later. US lost 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other vessels and 188 planes. 2,400 soldiers died. Unified the American people behind entering the war. US Declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy then declared war on the US.