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40 terms

Psychology Chapter 9: Life-Span Development

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development
the changes that are associated with increasing physiological maturity, experience, or an interaction of psychological changes and experiences with the environment
cognitive development
the process by which people's thinking changes across the life span
socioemotional development
the process by which people learn about themselves as human beings, as well as the process by which they learn to interact with each other, across the life span; may be viewed as including emotional, personality, interpersonal, and moral development
differentiate
to become more highly specialized into distinct parts or types
nature-nurture controversy
a debate regarding whether our psychological makeup arises from our inherited characteristics or from our interactions with the environment
maturation
any relatively permanent change in an individual that occurs strictly as a result of the biological processes of getting older
assimilation
the process of trying to restore cognitive equilibrium by incorporating new information into existing schemas
accommodation
the process of trying to restore cognitive equilibrium by modifying existing schemas or even creating new ones to fit new information
egocentric
focused on one's own views without being able to see how others may view a situation
internalization
the process of absorbing knowledge from a given social environmental context
zone of proximal development
a range between the developed abilities that a child clearly shows and the latent capacities that the child might be able to show, given the appropriate environment in which to do so
zygote
an individual in the first three stages of prenatal development
placenta
a protective membrane containing a dense network of blood vessels through which the mother's bodu supplies needed resources and removes waste products
embryo
an individual in the second stage of the three stages of prenatal development; the individual undergoes tremendous differentiation and rapid growth and is easily influenced by the maternal environment
critical period
a time of rapid growth and development, during which particular changes typically occur if they are ever to occur; that is, such changes typically do not occur after
fetus
an individual in the third of three stages of prenatal development; a time during which the individual develops enough sophistication to be able to survive outside the mother's uterus
neonate
newborn
motor
related to moving the muscles
sensorimotor stage
piaget's first stage of development, during which the child builds on reflexes and develops the first mental representations of things that are not being sensed at the moment
object permanence
the cognitive realization that objects may continue to exist even when they are not currently being sensed
attachement
a strong and relatively long lasting emotional tie between people
separation anxiety
the fear of being separated from a primary caregiver, such as a parent
strange situation
an experimental technique for observing attachement in young children
avoidant-attachment pattern
a pattern in which a child generally ignores the mother while she is present and in which the child shows minimal distress when the mother leaves; one of the three attachment patterns observed in the strange situation
secure-attachement pattern
a pattern in which a child generally shows preferential interest in, but not excessive dependence on, the attention of the mother while she is present and in which the child shows some distress when the mother leaves but can be calmed and reassured by her when she returns
resistant-attachement pattern
a pattern in which a child generally shows ambivalence toward the mother while she is present, seeking both to gain and to resist physical contact with her when the mother returns after being gone a short period of time
temperament
a person's distinctive tendency to show a particular mood and a particular intensity and duration of emotions
person-environment interaction
the distinctive fit between a given person and his or her environment
preoperational stage
Piaget's second stage of development, during which the child develops language and concepts about physical objects
representational thought
the thinking that involves mental images, such as images of tangible objects
conservation of quantity
the principle that the quantity of something remains the same as long as nothing is removed or added, even if the appearance of the substance changes in form
concrete-operational stage
Piaget's third stage of development, during which the child can mentally manipulate images of concrete objects
self-concept
an individual's beliefs, understandings, and self judgements
gender typing
the process of acquiring gender-related roles for a given society
interpersonal development
the process by which people change across the life span in the way they relate to other people
puberty
the period of physiological development during which males and females develop primary and secondary sex characteristics and thereby reach sexual maturity
adolescence
the stage of psychological development between the start of puberty and the time the individual accepts the full responsibilities of being an adult in a given society
formal-operational stage
Piaget's fourth stage of development during which the child becomes able to manipulate abstract ideas and formal relationships
imaginary audience
an adolescent's unfounded belief that other people are constantly observing, paying attention to, and judging the adolescent
life-span development
the changes that occur within a person over the life span