Much like the Truman Doctrine, this doctrine was meant to provide financial assistance to free nations under communist threat. However, this particular doctrine was pointed at the Middle East
The Smith Act
This 1940 act was designed to arrest people who were advocates of overthrowing the government, even if they had no intention of ever doing so
National Highway Act
This 1956 act created the nation's interstate freeway system. It looked as if it was intended solely to improve the country's infrastructure, but the 42,000 miles of road were also meant to provide for the quick evacuation of large urban centers, the emergency landing of planes, and the transport of missiles
This location in Korea was the line crossed when the North Korean Army invaded the South in 1950. The North Koreans cut their way easily to the heart of the South. However, General MacArthur, an American, was able to push the North Koreans back across this line with a surprise landing of UN forces at Inchon, near the border of the two Koreas
Egyptian leader Nasser asked the United States for assistance in building this structure. The United States refused, however, as Egypt looked to threaten the security of the new Jewish State of Israel
Bay of Pigs
An invasion took place in April 1961 in this location in Cuba. With faulty intelligence, CIA operatives landed here and were immediately surrounded by unhappy Cubans. The invasion was a failure and an embarrassment for President Kennedy
his is the term given to the smaller nations which, from 1946 to 1948, were taken under the wing of the communist leaders installed by Moscow and the Soviets
The Berlin Airlift
This program delivered supplies to a German city, day after day, for 11 months. the city had been cut off from Western contact by Joseph Stalin
This concept meant that the United States would unleash its arsenal of nuclear weapons on any nation that threatened it.
This hotline was initially installed during the Cuban Missile Crisis so that world leaders could have immediate contact in the instance of an emergency.
This term came from the name of a Republican senator who started raising suspicion that communist besides Alger Hiss were still working in the State Department. This became like a witch hunt for communists--although many of the accusations were false.
This Russian satellite was launched in 1957. When this happened, Americans were convinced that they had better get moving if they were to keep up with the Russian space programs
Dr. Martin Luther King
United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks (1929-1968). Gave the "I Have A Dream" speech.
This volunteer for the local chapter of the NAACP had seen many African American men and women arrested and mistreated for refusing to comply with the Jim Crow laws that ruled the bus system. She decided enough was enough when, on December 11, 1955, she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a city bus. Arrested and fined she ad started the ball rolling for the NAACP.
In 1955, this man discovered the serum that would immunize humans against polio. Using a live strain of the virus, he was successful in developing a vaccine that would almost eradicate the disease within the United States by the 1960s.
This Court was one of the most liberal in history. In Brown vs Board of Education, its ruling overturned the decision read that "separate facilities were inherently unequal" and had no place in public education. The Court soon ordered the desegregation of all public school facilities with "all deliberate speed." Due to another of this Court, the Little Rock School Board finally integrated the public schools. The Court also ruled that segregation on public buses was unconstitutional.
This man, who had assisted President Franklin Roosevelt during the Yalta Conference, was accused of leaking secrets to the communists. He denied any connections to the communist party or any spy networks. Nonetheless, he was convicted and sent to prison for perjury; he had falsely testified under oath that he had never been a member of a communist party.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
This World War II hero took the reigns of the presidency in 1952, with the anticommunist crusading Richard M. Nixon as his vice president. His presidency was marked by its foreign policy. The U.S. would actively support nations who sought liberation from communism through his idea of "brinkmanship"-United States would push the aggressor nation to the brink of nuclear war, forcing them to back down in the face of American superiority.
In 1958, this Soviet Premier demanded the removal of Westerners from Berlin within six months. He later joined forces with Fidel Castro to threaten U.S. national security.
In 1959, this revolutionary overthrew the brutal dictator Batista in Cuba. He nationalized businesses owned by americans and introduced massive land reforms. He then set off to build his communist state on the lucrative island. This man and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev joined forces to threaten U.S. National security.
Department of Defense
This organization, formerly called the Department of War, was provided for in the National Security Act of 1947.
National Security Council
This organization was provided for in the National Security Act on 1947. This organization wrote a secret document labeled NSC-68, which was released just after China fell to communism and the Korean crisis was about to begin. The document detailed the Soviet's plans for worldwide domination and encouraged an immediate buildup of the nation's military. Where the Truman Doctrine had provided for financial support in preventing the spread of communism, NSC-68 now provided for the use of U.S. troops to achieve containment.
Central Intelligence Agency
This organization was provided for in the National Security Act in 1947. In 1953, this organization staged a coup that led to the return of the corrupt and ruthless Shah of Iran. Similarly, this organization aided in the overthrow of a left-leaning government in Guatemala in 1954.
This group, under the leadership of Chiang Kai-Shek, received financial aid from the United States to keep the country from falling prey to the Japanese. Once support was removed post-war, this group and the communists, under the leadership of Mao Tse-Tung, reengaged in a war that had been brewing since before World War II. More money was sent, but much of it never made it into their hands. China finally fell to the communists by 1949; Chiang and this group fled to the nearby island of Formosa, now Taiwan.
South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO)
Eisenhower, fearing what he called the "domino theory" (where one Asian nation would fall to communism and the rest would follow), urged Secretary of State John Foster Dulles to snap to action. He created this group, which resembled NATO, to give mutual military assistance to member nations and hold up anticommunist Ngo Dinh Diem's crumbling regime in South Vietnam
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
This organization, established in 1939 to look for former Nazis who had made it to the United States, was reactivated in the postwar years to find communists. This organization made headlines in 1948 when American communist Whittaker Chambers testified in the case of a State Department employee who had supposedly leaked secrets to the communists.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Eisenhower saw the creation of this administration in 1958 to get the United States back in the running with the Soviets with regards to space travel.
The Geneva Convention
At this convention in 1954, the region of Indochina was divided into three nations: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. The convention also decided to divide Vietnam at the 17th parallel, with the communists led by Ho Chi Minh in North and anticommunists led by Ngo Dinh Diem in the South. It was further decided that elections to reunite Vietnam would occur in two years.
Cuban Missile Crisis
This situation occurred in October 1962 when U,S, spy planes discovered nuclear missiles sites on Cuba. These missiles decreased the warning time of a nuclear attack to 30 seconds. Kennedy ordered their immediate removal, but Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev balked. Headed by Attorney General Robert Kennedy, an advisory group decided a naval blockade would be the safest option. After days of turning back Soviets ships, Khrushchev decided to remove the missiles, as long as the United States promised to never invade Cuba again and removed its missiles from Turkey.
In March 1947, Truman made this speech where he asked Congress for funding to assist Greece and Turkey in repelling a possible communist take-over. The president's speech explained that the United States had a duty to give financial assistance to free nations under communist threat. This policy passed its first test, as both Greece and Turkey successfully thwarted communism.
In June 1947, Truman's secretary of State masterminded this plan to give Western Europe massive amounts of financial assistance and political support for rebuilding democratic forms of government. Congress readily approved this plan, which would supply $3 billion in aid over a four-year period. This plan was an economic miracle for Western Europe. By the end of the era the region was entirely self-sufficient, and communism had been contained away from vulnerable countries.
Joseph Stalin formed this alliance in 1955, which provided the military protection but at a cost--once a country was a member, it could never leave the alliance.
National Security Act
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) I
This treaty was signed by the United States and the USSR in May 1972. In the treaty, each nation agreed to reduce the number of nuclear missiles in its arsenal in exchange for the United States supplying the Soviets with much-needed grain over the next three years.
Camp David Accords
This peace agreement occurred when President Carter invited Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin to meet at the presidential retreat in Maryland. Sadat and Begin discussed peace options while Carter acted as mediator. This peace agreement was signed in September 1978. The treaty served as the first step toward peace in the Middle East since the founding of the states of Israel in 1948.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) II
SALT I was set to expire in 1977, so Carter and the Soviets were set to sign a renewal treaty. This treaty was negotiated and sat ready for ratification when a world crisis got in the way. The USSR invaded the nation of Afghanistan in December 1979 in a move to play a greater role in the Middle East. Americans were now certain the Soviets had intentions to take control of the precious oil transportation region of the Persian Gulf. The United States immediately ceased supplying the USSR with grain shipments and withdrew this treaty from the table.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) I
PResident Bush and Yeltsin signed this treaty in 1991, which drastically reduced the number of nuclear warheads in both countries.
This process was Nixon's plan to turn the war over to those who should be fighting it--the Vietnamese. This process involved the United States military instructing the South Vietnamese on how to go about fighting the war of their own. The number of U.S. troops in the country slowly decreased. Within the span of three years, the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam decreased from 500,000 in 1969 t just under 30,000 in 1972.
This NASA space shuttle exploded upon takeoff in February 1986. All seven astronauts aboard, including the first teacher in space, Christa McAuliffe, were killed.
This program, officially known as the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), was supported by President Reagan. The system was designed to have battle "ships" stationed in orbit the could defend the United States against nuclear attack with lasers. While critics and many in the scientific community spoke of the impossibility of SDI, Reagan used the idea of the systems as a scare tactic for the Soviets.
This reform program was introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev. Meaning "openness," it was designed to rid the country of the old Stalin totalitarian state by easing laws designed to limit the freedoms of Russians
This reform program was introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev. Meaning "restructuring," it was aimed at opening up the once-closed Soviet economy to more free market interactions to repair the sluggish economy.
William "Bill" Clinton
Winner of the 1992 presidential election, this man worked to reform health care and the welfare system. He was challenged by a disunited government--Congress sat in Republican hands. He and House Speaker Newt Gingrich were headed for a showdown, as the president threatened to veto the Republican budget and force the closure of government offices until a new budget was created. Republicans were ultimately forced to back down, opening the doors for this president to emerge unscathed as he compromised to pass a federal budget.
In 1995, the Murrow Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, was attacked by a large bomb that killed 168 people. The bombing was the act of this right-wing extremist.
Osama Bin Laden
This man, a Saudi national, is t he leader of Al-Qaeda. He had formed a military training camp in Afghanistan to prepare warriors to attack Western targets.
This Iraqi leader had been a problem for the U.S. since he invaded Kuwait back in 1991. More recently, he refused to cooperate fully with United Nations weapons inspections, so President George W. Bush, along with British Prime Minister Tony Blair, convinced Congress and most of the United States that Iraq posted a serious threat to the United States and the world if let in power. The official invasion of Iraq sanctioned by the UN and was condemned by many of the U.S.'s allies around the world. This man was caught and eventually executed.
This multinational force of fighters and terrorists, led by Osama Bin Laden, began by attacking World Trade Center in New York in 1993, which killed six people but inflicted minimal damage. The group was also responsible for the 9/11 attacks.
This was the ruling party of Afghanistan. It was sympathetic to Al-Qaeda and had provided safe haven for their activities. The United States military was successful in removing this group from power, and assisted in the establishment of a coalition government in its place.
"War of Terror"
This phrase was the reason that American troops invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 to find Osama Bin Laden.
This day began as a normal workday in New York City. At 8:46 A.M. Eastern Time, American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center. Approximately 15 minutes later, United Flight 175 crashed into the south tower. Two planes remained unaccounted for until American Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon and United Flight 93 crashed into a wooded area of Pennsylvania. The towers soon collapsed, killing occupants and rescue workers. In the end, some 3,000 lives were lost, and the city of New York faced over $80 billion in damages.
Immigration and Control Acts of 1986
Aiming to put a damper on illegal immigration that occured mainly at the country's southern border with Mexico, congress passed this act. Despite this act, illegal immigration into the United States continued, allowing some 12 million undocumented aliens into the country by 1990.