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65 terms

first aid exam 2

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medial
toward the inside
pes cavus
a foot with a high longitudinal arch
pes planus
a foot with a flat longitudinal arch
intrinsic muscle
a muscle that originates and inserts within the foot or hand
superficial
toward the surface of the body
lateral
toward the outside
innervation
the process of sending a nerve impulse from the central nervous system to the periphery to induce a muscle to contract
interdigital
located between the digits (i.e. the fingers and toes)
articulation
the point where two or more adjacent bones create a joint
dorsiflexion
movement of the foot toward the upper, or dorsal, surface
plantar flexion
movement of the foot toward the bottom, or plantar, surface
inversion
inward movement, or turning, of the foot
eversion
outward movement, or turning, of the foot
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
pronation
movement of the forearm to place the palm facedown; or, while non-weight bearing, a combination of dorsiflexion, eversion, and foot abduction
supination
movement of the forearm to place the palm faceup; or, while non-weight bearing, a combination of plantar flexion, inversion, and foot adduction
anterior
the front or top surface of a limb
extrinsic muscle
a muscle that originates in the leg or forearm and inserts into the foot or hand
origin
the point where muscle attaches to bone; usually refers to the proximal attachment of the muscle
posterior
the near or bottom surface of a limb
retinaculum
a soft-tissue fibrous structure designed to stabilize tendons or bones
dorsum
the top of the foot or the back of the hand
static stretching
stretching a muscle in a stationary position
strain
an overstretching (first degree), partial tearing (second degree), or complete rupture (third degree) of any component of the muscle-tendon unit
tendinitis
inflammation of a tendon or its sheath
overuse injury
chronic injury resulting from repetitive stress
plantar fasciitis
inflammation of the plantar fascia at its attachment to the calcaneus
plantar neuroma
inflammation or irritation of a plantar nerve
shin splints
a colloquial term for pain in the leg that originate from any number of possible sources
periosteum
outer layer of bone
orthotic
a commercially available insert designed to realign and alter the biomechanics of the foot
valgus
alignment of a joint or stress to the joint that places the distal bone in a lateral direction; the "knock-kneed" position of the knee joint
varus
alignment of a joint or stress to the joint that places the distal bone in a medial direction; the "bow-legged" position of the knee joint
anterior cruciate ligament
a ligament crossing through the knee joint that attaches from the anterior tibia to the posterior femur. the anterior cruciate ligament limits anterior movement of the tibia from the femur as well as rotation of the tibia
menisci
the intra-articular cartilage of the knee
avascular
the absence of blood supply
quadriceps femoris
the muscle group in the anterior though consisting of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis
hamstrings
a muscle group in the posterios thigh consisting of the semitendinosis, semimembranosus, an biceps femoris
bursa
a fluid sac that reduces friction between two structures
contralateral
refers to the opposite extremity
open-chain exercise
exercise in which the distal segment of the extremity does not bear weight
closed-chain exercise
exercise in which the distal segment of the extremity is fixed to the ground
quadriceps (q)-angle
the degree of obliquity of the quadriceps
electrical muscle stimulation
use of electrical current to induce a muscle to contract
biofeedback
feedback provided through the visual observation or an audio tone
innominate bones
two flat bones that form the pelvic girdle; each consists of an ilium, pubis, and ischium
circumduction
a combination of abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension
spica
a figure-eight wrap that incorporates the thigh and hip or the arm and shoulder
iliac crest
the superior border of the iliac bone; the colloquial term for a contusion to this area is hip pointer
myositis ossificans
the formation of bone within a muscle that has suffered a contusion
hematoma
a collection of pooling blood
rotator cuff
the muscle group in the shoulder consisting of the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor
acromioclavicular joint sprain
a sprain to the acromioclavicular or coracoclavicular ligaments of the joint formed bu the distal clavicle and the acromion process of the scapula; also known colloquially as a separated shoulder
subluxation
a partial dislocation of a joint
dislocation
a complete separation of two articulating bones
exostosis
abnormal bone growth
epicondylitis
inflammation of an epicondyle
avulsion
the tearing away of a tendon or ligament attachment from bone
insertion
the point where muscle attaches to bone; usually refers to the distal attachment of the muscle
extensor hood
the anatomical tendon configuration on the dorsal aspect of the finger
pollicis
pertaining to the thumb
anatomical snuffbox
the space at the base of the thumb created by the extensor pollicis longus and brevis tendons
thenar eminence
intrinsic muscle of the thumb that include the abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and the adductor pollicis.
baseball finger
the colloquial term for an avulsion of the extensor digitorium tendon from the distal phalanx of the finger; also known as mallet finger