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quiz review for chapt 2
Terms in this set (60)
Apparent motion can be influenced by an observer's point of fixation so that at middle dictances, objects closser than the point of fixation appear to
a. move backward
d. remain stationary
a. move backward
a novice chef discovers how to tell the difference between dried basil, oregano, and tarragon by focusing on a specific aspect of each herb. this illustrates
a. perceptual learning
b. reality testing
a. perceptual learning
the illiustration depicst the use of which pictorial depth cue
a. texture gradients
b. linear perspective
c. arial perspective
when the transfer of vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear weakens a person has which type of hearing loss
Jake is being administered a test of his visual acuity in which he will be required to read rows of letters of diminishing size until he can no longer distinguish them. Jake's visual acuity is being assessed using the
a. ishihara test
b. snellen chart
According to psychologist Barbara Frederickson, which of the following generally narrows our perceptual focus and increases the likelihood of inattentional blindness?
a. bottom-up proccession
Our sensory systems act as data selection systems. This means that they
After complimenting his wife Helen on her new blue dress, Sid proceeded to put on a red tie and a green coat, thinking they were both a yellowish brown. Sid most likely has
oly rods in his eyes no cones
total color blindness
When the two different images, one from each eye, are fused into one overall image, three-dimensional sight occurs, which is referred to as __________ vision.
The dramatic increase in retinal sensitivity to light that occurs after a person enters the dark is called __________.
Changes in the brain that alter how we process sensory information so that we can focus on just one part of a group of stimuli rather than processing all of the stimuli is called __________.
The "brothy" taste associated with certain amino acids in chicken soup, tuna, cheese, and soybeans is called __________.
Most focusing is done at the front of the eye by a clear membrane that bends light inward called the __________.
Pinching your leg while you receive an injection will lessen the pain of the injection due to counterirritation.
The three small bones of the middle ear are called the auditory ossicles.
In one study on perceptual expectancies, participants were given a taste of a "$90 wine" and a "$10 wine," and they reported that the more expensive one tasted better, even though the same wine was served both times.
Our sensory systems act as data selection systems. This means that they
a. are only sensitive to a small range of sensations that will require additional interpretation by the brain.
b. select and analyze information and send only the most important data to the brain.
c. can change one form of energy to another.
d. transmit information to the brain in the form of codes.
select and alaylze information and send only the most important infor to brain
Individuals who have Charles Bonnet syndrome are mentally disturbed and lack the ability to engage in reality testing.
One's perceptual accuracy can be enhanced through the creation of perceptional sets.
In a classic study in which participants were asked to count the number of times a basketball was passed between the team members wearing black, half the participants failed to notice the person wearing the gorilla suit who walked into the middle of the basketball game.
A tangible secondary reinforcer, such as money, gold stars, or poker chips, that can be exchanged for food, lodgings, and other necessities is referred to as a(n) __________ reinforcer.
You have just broken up with your boyfriend. You are sitting at a table with friends when you see him enter the restaurant. He has not seen you yet, so you duck into the ladies room. You are exhibiting __________ learning.
Theresa has a phobia of insects and is undergoing a therapeutic technique in which she will be gradually exposed to the phobic stimuli of insects while she remains calm and relaxed. This therapeutic technique is called __________.
Young children may temporarily call all men daddy, much to the embarrassment of their parents, which illustrates operant stimulus __________.
Many studies of operant conditioning in animals make use of an operant conditioning chamber, which was invented by __________.
The type of learning that involves higher mental processes, such as understanding, knowing, or anticipating is called __________ learning.
Classical and operant conditioning are the two types of __________ learning.
Jai touched a light socket and received a shock. Jai will probably not touch a light socket again because he received
a. mild punishment.
b. negative reinforcement.
c. response cost.
d. severe punishment.
Food, water, pain reduction, sex, and brain stimulation have in common the fact that all are __________ reinforcers.
Which of the following types of associative learning is also known as instrumental learning and can be used to alter your own behavior and the behavior of pets, children, and other adults?
a. respondent conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. classical conditioning
d. Pavlovian conditioning
Mike and Jeff are brothers who have just moved with their parents into a beautiful old house. Mike soon discovers that if he flushes the toilet while Jeff is taking a shower, it will cause the water in the shower to become scalding hot. Naturally, Jeff screams as his reflexes cause him to leap backward in pain. After Mike has repeated this procedure several times, Jeff has begun to twitch involuntarily every time he hears any toilet flush. In this example, jumping backward to the pain of the hot water would be the
unconditioned response (UR).
b. conditioned stimulus (CS).
c. unconditioned stimulus (US).
d. conditioned response (CR).
The conditioning of which of the following behaviors may be useful for distinguishing locked-in individuals from those with more severe brain damage as well as distinguishing the severely brain-damaged individuals who are minimally conscious from those who are in a vegetative state?
. eye blinks
b. movement tics
c. lucid dreaming
d. tongue placemen
In higher-order conditioning, the.
a. US is used as if it were a CS.
b. CS is used as if it were a US.
c. CS is used as if it were a UR.
d. US is used as if it were a CR.
Cs is used as if it wer a US
In classical conditioning, the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to (but not identical to) a conditioned response is called
a. transfer of training.
b. spontaneous recovery.
c. vicarious conditioning.
d. stimulus generalization.
It has been widely accepted that that many phobias begin as a(n)
a. operant reinforcer.
b. response chain.
c. conditioned emotional response.
d. spontaneous recovery.
Conditioned emotional response
Many of the emotional (positive or negative) attitudes that people develop toward foods, political parties, and ethnic groups were developed in childhood by observing how their parents responded to these same foods or groups. Thus, these reactions were probably conditioned
by response chaining.
b. by insight learning.
d. through negative transference.
A child calls his black cat "Binkie" but does not call other black cats this name, which illustrates operant stimulus discrimination.
In Bandura's classic Bo-Bo doll experiment, most of the children imitated all of the models, whether live, filmed, or cartoon.
Continuous reinforcement is more resistant to extinction than partial reinforcement.
Compared to discovery learning, learning by rote tends to produce a better understanding of new problems.
Lowering body and brain activity and metabolism during sleep may help conserve energy and lengthen life, according to the __________ theories of sleep.
Addictive drugs cause feelings of pleasure because they stimulate a brain region called the nucleus accumbens to release the neurotransmitter __________.
The reduction in the body's response to a drug which may accompany drug use is called __________.
Mental awareness of sensations and perceptions of external events as well as self-awareness of internal events including thoughts, memories, and feelings about experiences and the self makes up one's __________.
In order for Freud to analyze the hidden, symbolic meaning of his patients' dreams, he would have his patients remember and retell the obvious, visible parts of their dreams known as the __________ content.
Most dreams reflect ordinary waking concerns because the brain areas that are active when we are awake remain active during dreaming, according to the __________ dream theory.
The drug PCP is an anesthetic that can have hallucinogenic effects as well as stimulant and depressant effects.
Very few cultures or religions recognize and accept alterations of consciousness.
In their studies of the brain and behavior, psychologists rely on introspective reports from people who are hypnotized to understand how the brain produces hypnosis.
Some people can learn very complex tasks while asleep, such as learning a foreign language.
Psychoactive drugs can be placed on a scale ranging from
a. addiction to withdrawal.
b. dependency to addiction.
c. stimulation to depression.
d. hallucinogenic to analgesic.
stimulation to depression
Which of the following is NOT a danger signal for SIDS?
a. Baby remains passive when its face rolls into a pillow or blanket.
b. The baby is placed on its back to sleep.
c. The baby is premature and has a shrill, high-pitched cry.
d. an infant snores and holds its breath.
baby placed on its back to slep
Meditation techniques that involve focusing your attention on an image, a phrase, or your own breathing are referred to as __________ meditation
Which of the following sleep disturbances has the correct description?
a. nightmare disorder: repeated occurrence of night terrors that significantly disturb sleep
b. REM sleep behavior disorder: sudden, irresistible daytime sleep attacks that last from a few minutes to a half hour
c. insomnia: difficulty in staying asleep and not feeling rested after sleeping
d. hypersomnolence disorder: a failure of normal muscle paralysis, leading to violent actions during REM sleep
When Eric first looked over the rim of the Grand Canyon, he experienced deep feelings of insignificance and awe. In that instant, he was fully aware that he was experiencing a deeply moving moment. This is an example of:
a. the hidden observer.
d. manifest content.
Which of the following has been shown to help people relax, feel less pain, and make better progress in therapy?
. stimulus control
c. the use of microsleeps
d. lucid dream
Long-distance running, listening to music, sleep, and daydreaming are just some of the everyday ways to produce
b. altered states of consciousness.
c. sensory enhancement.
d. simulated information processing.
altered state of consciousness
Regarding drug-taking behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Short-term drug use based on curiosity is classified as social-recreational use.
Answers:a. Short-term drug use based on curiosity is classified as social-recreational use.b. Some people remain social drinkers for life, whereas others become alcoholics within weeks of taking their first drink.c. Some drugs have a higher potential for abuse than others.d. The abuse of more than one drug at the same time is referred to as polydrug use.
short term drug use based on curiosity is classefied as social recreational use
Many theorists believe that all hypnosis is really self-hypnosis because
Which theory assumes that dream content reflects one's unconscious internal conflicts, motives, and desires?
a. the psychodynamic dream theory
b. the neurocognitive dream theory
c. the memory consolidation theory
d. the activation-synthesis hypothesis
the psychodynamic dream theroy
What makes up our central nervous system
Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a(n):
a stroke patient can recognize the sound of his wife voice but cannot recognize her face when she stands next time. which brain region has most likely been damaged
The Brown-Peterson technique, in which subjects learn several consonants and then are requested to count backwards by threes, attempted to measure:
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How did Mr. von Osten test his hypothesis?
Humanistic psychologists may assess personality by a. asking a person to compare their ideal self to their actual self. b. asking people to fill out lengthy questionnaires about their beliefs. c. getting people to describe what they see in ambiguous inkblots. d. having a person describe their dreams. e. putting people in a stressful situation to see how they behave under pressure.
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, what stage of moral development is exhibited when actions are judged “right” because they flow from basic ethical principles? a. Postconventional. b. Preconventional. c. Conventional. d. Preoperational. e. Formal operational.