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186 terms

Respiratory System

Ch 7 Terms
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respiratory system
brings oxygen into body for transportation into cells, removes carbon dioxide and some water waste from body, divided into upper and lower respiratory tracts
upper respiratory tract
nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea
lower respiratory tract
consists of the bronchial tree and lungs
thoracic cavity
rib cage, protects lower respiratory tract
nose
air enters body through this
nasal septum
wall of cartilage hat divides nose into two equal sections
cilia
thin hairs located just inside nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris
mucous membranes
specialized tissues that line respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems
mucus
secreted by mucous membranes, protects and lubricates these tissues. In the nose _______ helps to moisten, warm, and filter the air as it enters
olfactory receptors
nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell, important to sense of taste, located in mucous membrane in upper part of nasal cavity
tonsils
form protective circle lymphatic tissue around entrance to respiratory system
paranasal sinuses
air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, are located in bones of skull, connected to the nasal cavity via short ducts
frontal sinuses
located in frontal bone just above eyebrows, infection here can cause severe pain in this area
sphenoid sinuses
located in sphenoid bone, close to optic nerves - infection here can damage vision
maxillary sinuses
larges of paranasal sinuses, located in maxillary bones, infection here causes pain in posterior maxillary teeth
ethmoid sinuses
located in ethmoid bones, irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from orbital (eye) cavity by only a thin layer of bone
pharynx
aka throat, receives air after it passes through nose
nasopharynx
first division, posterior to nasal cavity and continues downward to behind mouth. This first part of pharynx is used only by respiratory system for transport of air and opens into the oropharynx
nas/o
WORD PART: nose
-pharynx
WORD PART: throat
oropharynx
second division of pharynx, portion that is visible when looking into mouth. It is shared by respiratory and digestive systems and transports air, food, and fluid downward to the laryngopharynx
or/o
WORD PART: mouth
laryngopharynx
third division of pharynx. Air, food, and fluids continue downward to openings of esophagus and trachea where air enters the trachea and food and fluids flow into the esophagus
larynx
aka voice box, triangular chamber located between pharynx and trachea
thyroid cartilage
protects and supports by series of nine separate cartilages, largest and when enlarged, commonly known as Adam's Apple
vocal cords
contained by larynx, during breathing, cords are separated to let air pass, during speech, they close together, and sound is produced as air is expelled from the lungs, causing _______ _______ to vibrates against each other
epiglottis
lid-like structure located at base of tongue, swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so that food does not enter trachea and lungs
trachea
aka windpipe, tube located directly in front of esophagus that extends from nexk to chest, its role is to transport air to, and from, the lungs
bronchi
formed where trachea divides into two branches known as primary bronchi, aka bronchial tree
bronchioles
within lungs, each primary bronchus divides into these subdividings
alveoli
aka air sacs, very small grape-like clusters found at end of each bronchiole, each lung contains millions of alveoli that are filled with air from bronchioles
lungs
organs of respiration, divided into lobes
lobe
subdivision or part of an organ
right lung
has three lobes: superior, middle, and inferior
left lung
has two lobes: superior and inferor, slightly smaller because of the space the heart takes up
mediastinum
cavity located between lungs, cavity contains connective tissue and organs, including heart and its veins and arteries, the esophagus, trahcea, bronchi, thmus gland, and lymph nodes
pleura
thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the inner surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage
parietal pleura
outer layer of pleura that lines walls of thoracic caivty, covers diaphrag,. forms sac containing each lung
visceral pleura
inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung
pleural cavity
aka pleural space, airtight area between layers of pleural memranes, space contains thin layer of fluid that allows membranes to slide easily during breathing
diaphragm
muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen, contraction and relaxation of this muscle that makes breathing possible
phrenic nerves
stimulate diaphragm and cause it to contract
respiration
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that is essential to life, single respiration consists of one inhalation and one exhalation
inhalation
act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward, action causes thoracic cavity to expand, produces vacuum within thoracic cavity that draws air into lungs
exhalation
act of breathing out, as diaphragm relaxwa, it moves upward, causing thoracic cavity to become narrower, action forces air out of lungs
external respiration
act of bringing air into an out of lungs and exchanging gases from this air, as air is inhaled into alveoli, oxygen immediately passes into the surrounding capillaries and is carried by RBCs to all body cells, at same time, waste product carbon dioxide that has passed into bloodstream is transported into airspaces of lungs to be exhaled
internal respiration
exchange of gases within cells of body organs, cells, tissues
otolaryngologist
ENT
pulmonologist
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of lungs and associated tissues
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD, lung disease in which it is hard to breather. Damage to bronchi partially obstructs them, making it difficult to get air in and out. People with COPD are usually smokers/former smokers also have chronic bronhitis and emphysema
chronic bronchitis
airways become inflamed and thickened, and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells, results in excessive mucus production
emphysema
progressive loss of lung function that is characterized by 1) decrease in the total number of alveoli, 2) enlargement of the remaining alveoli, 3) progressive destruction of walls of remaining alveoli, as alveoli destroyed, breathing becomes increasingly rapid, shallow, and difficult, lungs expand and chest sometimes assumes an enlarged barrel shape
asthma
chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughin, and wheezing
airway inflammation
swelling and clogging of airways with mucus, usually occurs after airway has been exposed to inhaled allergens
bronchospam
contraction of smooth muscle in walls of bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze airway shut
excerise-induced bronchospasms
(EIB) are the narrowing of airways that develops after 5-15 minutes of physical exertion, this also can be due to cold weather or allergies
common cold
upper respiratory infections and acute nasopharyngitis among terms used to describe this
allergic rhinitis
commonly referred to as an allergy, allergic reaction to airborne allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus
croup
acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
diphtheria
now largely prevented through immunization, is an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract, this bacteria produce toxins that can damage that heart muscle and peripheral nerves
epistaxis
aka nose-bleed, usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders
influenza
aka flu, acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection that is spread by respiratory droplets and occurs most commonly in epidemics during the colder months
pertussis
aka whooping cough, is a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness, and a noisy inspiration
rhinorrhea
aka runny nose, watery flow of mucus from nose
sinusitis
inflammation of sinuses
pharyngitis
aka sore throat, inflammation of pharynx
laryngoplegia
paralysis of larynx
laryngospasm
sudden spasmodic closure of larynx
aphonia
loss of ability of larynx to produce normal speech sounds
phon-
WORD PART: voice or sound
dysphonia
any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or cracking of a boy's voice during puberty
laryngitis
inflammation of larynx, voice loss due to inflammation
tracheorrhagia
bleeding from mucous membranes of trachea
bronchorrhea
excessive discharge of mucus from bronchi
pleurisy
aka pleuritis, inflammation of pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath, caused by influenza or by damage to the lung beneath the pleura
pleurodynia
pain in pleura that occurs in relation to breathing movements
pneumothorax
accumulation of air in pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that prevents the lung from fully expanding or can cause it to collapse, this can have an external cause such as a stab wound through the chest wall, can be caused by rupture in the pleura that allows air to leak into the pleural space
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, this produces a feeling of breathlessness because it prevents lung from fully expanding
effusion
escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into tissues or into body cavity
hemothorax
collection of blood in the pleural cavity
hemoptysis
coughing up blood or bloodstained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
pyothorax
is the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between layers of pleural membrane, aka empyema of the pleural cavity
empyema
collection of pus within a body cavity
acute respiratory disease syndrome
(ARDS) is not a specific disease. it is a form of sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult. syndrome is caused by trauma (injury), sepsis (systemic infection), diffuse (wide spread) pneumonia, or shock
atelectasis
collapse of part or all of a lung by blockage of air passages or by very shallow breathing
atel-
WORD PART: incomplete
-ectasis
WORD PART: stretching or enlargement
collapsed lung
unable to expand to receive air due to a pneumothorax or atelectasis
pulmonary edema
accumulation of fluid in lung tissues
pnemorrhagia
bleeding from lungs
tuberculosis
infectious disease caused bu Myobacterium tuberculosis usually attacks lungs
pneumonia
serious infectino or inflammation of lungs in which smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill with pus and other liquid
pneumon-
WORD PART: lung
bronchopneumonia
localized form of pneumonia that often affects bronchioles and surrounding alveoli
lobar pneumonia
affects larger areas of lungs, often including one or more sections, or lobes, of a lung.
aspiration pneumonia
can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
aspiration
inhaling or drawing foreign substance into upper respiratory tract
bacterial pneumonia
often caused by streptococcus pneumoniae, only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination
mycoplasma pneumonia
milder but longer lasting form of disease by bacteria mycoplasma pneumoniae, sometimes referred to as walking pneumonia because patient is not bedridden
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
opportunistic infection caused by fungus pneumocystis carinii
viral pneumonia
caused by several different types of viruses, accounts for approximately half of all pneumonias
interstitial lung disease
group of almost 200 diseases that cause inflammation and scarring of alveoli and their supporting structures
interstitial fibrosis
inflammation and thickening of walls og alveoli
fibrosis
condition in which normal tissue is replaced by fibrotic (hardened) tissue
pneumoconiosis
fibrosis of lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after prolonged environmental or occupational contact
anthracosis
aka coal miner's pnemoconiosis or black lung disease, caused by coal dust in lungs
asbestosis
caused by asbestos particles in lungs and usually occurs after working with asbestos
bryssinosis
aka brown lung disease, is caused by inhaling cotton dust into lungs and usually occurs after working in a textile factory
byssin-
WORD PART: cotton dust
asbest-
WORD PART: asbestos
silicosis
cuased by inhaling silica dust in lungs and usually occurs after working in occupations including foundry work, quarrying, ceramics, glass work, sandblasting
silic-
WORD PART: glass
pulmonary fibrosis
formation of scar tissue in lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing. This condition can be caused by autoimmune disorders, infections, dust, gases, toxins, and some drugs
cystic fibrosis
genetic disorder in which lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus, treatment for ___________ includes digestive enzymes are administered to aid digestive system, antibiotics are administered to control lung infections, postural drainage is performed with the patient positioned at various angles to allow gravity to help drain secretions from lungs, chest percussion is also performed to remove excess mucus from teh lungs
lung cancer
leading cause of cancer death in US, condition in which cancer cells form in tissues of lung, important risk factors for lung cancer are tobacco smoking and inhaling second-hand smoke, most commonly used to diagnose are chest xrays and sputum cytology
sputum cytology
procedure in which sample mucus is coughed up from lungs and then examined under a microscope to detect cancer cells
eupnea
easy or normal breathing
apnea
absence spontaneous respiration
sleep apnea syndromes
group of potentially fatal disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long-enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels
bradypnea
abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute
tachypnea
abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually more than 20 breaths per minute
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of laternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, follwed by hyperapnea
dyspnea
aka shortness of breath, difficult or labored breathing, shortness of breath is frequently one of the first symptoms of heart failure, it can also be caused by strenuous physical exertion or can be due to lung damage that produces dyspnea even at rest
hyperpnea
commonly associated with exertion, breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest
hypopnea
shallow or slow respiration
hyperventilation
abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety, change causes blood gas levels due to decrease in carbon dioxide at cellular level
airway obstruction
aka choking, occurs when food or foreign object blocks airway and prevents air from entering or leaving lungs can be alleviated using Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrust maneuver
anoxia
absence of oxygen from body's gases, blood, tissues
asphyxia
condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function, in this life-threatening condition, oxygen levels in the blood drop quickly, carbon dioxide levels rise, and unless that patient's breathing is restored within a few minutes, death or serious brain damage follows
asphyxiation
aka suffocation, any interruption or normal breathing resulting in asphyxia. Can be caused by an airway obstruction, drowning, smothering, choking, or inhaling gases such as carbon monoxide instead of air
cyanosis
bluish discoloration of skin caused by lack of adequate oxygen
hypercapnia
abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
capn-
WORD PART: carbon dioxide
hypoxemia
condition of having below-normal oxygen level in blood
ox-
WORD PART: oxygen
hypoxia
condition of having below-normal oxygen levels in body tissues and cells, less severe than anoxia
altitude hypoxia
aka altitude sickness, condition that can be brought on by decreased oxygen in air at higher altitudes, usually 8,000 feet
respiratory failure
aka respiratory acidosis, condition in which level of oxygen in blood becomes dangerously low or level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high
smoke inhalation
damage to lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli and prevent normal exchange of gases
sudden infant death syndrome
(SIDS) aka crib death, sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between ages of 2 weeks and 1 year. Happens more often among babies who sleep ont heir stomach
bronchoscopy
visual examination of bronchi using a bronchoscope
chest imaging
aka chest x-ray, valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, emphysema
laryngoscopy
visual examination of larynx using a laryngoscope inserted through moth and placed into pharynx to examine larynx
peak flow meter
handheld device often used to test those with asthma to measure how quickly the patient can expel iar
polysomnography
aka sleep apnea study, measures physiological activity during sleep and is mot often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea
somn-
WORD PART: sleep
pulmonary function tests
group tests that measure volume and flow of air by utilizing a spirometer, these tests are measured against a norm for indivdual's age, height, and sex
spirometer
recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of time required for each breath
spir-
WORD PART: breathe
pulse oximeter
external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in blood, normal = 95%-100%
sputum
phlegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes
phlegm
thick mucus secreted by tissues lining respiratory passages
tuberculin skin testing
screening test for TB in which skin of arm is injected with a harmless antigen extracted from TB bacteria, + result = possibility of exposure to the disease and response warrants durther testing
Mantoux PPD skin test
considered more accurate skin test for diagnosing TB, very small amount of PPD tuberculin (purified protein derivative) injected just under the top layer of teh skin on the forearm
antitussive
aka cough medicine, administered to prevent or relieve coughing
tuss-
WORD PART: cough
-ive
WORD PART: performs
bronchodilator
medication the expands the opening of passages into lungs, at first sign of an asthma attack, patient usses a metered-dose inhaler to self-administer the bronchodilator
metered-dose inhaler
mixes a single dose of medication with a puff of air and pushes it into the mouth via a chemical propellant
nebulizer
aka atomizer, pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouth piece
endotracheal intubaation
passage of tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
functional endoscopic sinus surgery
(FESS) procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging opening between nose and sinus
laryngectomy
surgical removal of larynx
laryngoplasty
surgical repair of larynx
pharyngoplasty
surgical repair of pharynx
pharyngotomy
surgical incision of pharynx
septoplasty
surgical repair or alteration of parts of nasal septum
tracheoplasty
surgical repair of trachea
tracheostomy
creation of stoma into trachea and inserting a tube to facilitate passage of air or removal of secretions, placement of this tube can be temporary or permanent
stoma
surgically created opening on a body surface
tracheotomy
is usually an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into trachea to gain access to the airway below blockage
lobectomy
surgical removal of a lobe of the lung, liver, brain, or thyroid gland
pleurectomy
surgical removal of part of pleura
pneumonectomy
surgical removal of all or part of a lung
thoracentesis
surgical puncture of chest wall with a needle to obtain lfuid from the pleural cavity
thoracostomy
surgical creation of an opening into chest cavity, performed to establish drainage of empyema, which is pus in the pleural space
thoracotomy
surgical treatment of lung cancer by removing all or part of a lung, involves cutting between ribs on one side of thorax and then removing the affected portion of the lung
video-assisted thoracic surgery
(VATS), use of video-assisted thoracosope to view the inside of the chest cavity through very small incisions.
diaphragmatic breathing
aka abdominal breathing, relaxation technique used to relive anxiety
continuous positive airway pressure device
(CPAP) aka positive pressure ventilation device, treaqtment for sleep apnea that includes a mask, tubes, and a fan to create air pressure that pushes the tongue forward to maintain an open airway, although this doesn't cure sleep apnea, it does reduce snoring and prevents dangerous apnea disturbances
respirator
apparatus for administering artificial respiration in cases of respiratory failure, when spinal cord injury destroys natural breathing mechanism, patient can continue to breathe through the use of a respirator, also refers to any device that controls the quality of the air a person inhales, can also be disposable dust mask or a piece of scuba diving equipment.
ventilator
mechanical device for artificial ventiliation of lungs that is used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function, ventilator forces air into lungs, exhalation takes place passively as lungs contract
supplemental oxygen
administered when patient is unable to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in blood, oxygen is administered by methods
nasal cannula
small tube that divides into two nasal prongs
rebreather mask
allows exhaled breath to be partially reused, delivering up to 60% oxygen
non-rebreather mask
allows higher levels of pxygen to be added to the air taken in by the patient