Terms in this set (154)
Before Common Era
Greek-hidden things. Collection of books
A group of about twenty mostly Jewish works, many of which were included in the Septuagint, but which are not included in the Jewish or Protestant canons of the Bible. Most of these works are canonical for Roman Catholics; a few more are canonical for Orthodox Christians
Greek- measuring rod
the rule by which something is determined to belong or not belong to a category. Christian tradition uses the word for the official list of the books that make up the Bible.
A manuscript of separate pages, bound along one edge. Modern books are a development of the codex.
Council of Trent
The twenty-ninth ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church (1545-1563), held after the Protestant Reformation had begun. Among other decisions, it declared deutro books to be canon. Volgate definite text. Greek and Hebrew texts had been corrupted over the years.
Gk- second canon those books or portions of books not included in the Hewish or Protestant canons but accepted as canonical by some Christian churches (Roman Catholic and Orthodox) because they were included in the Septuagint. The NRSV places notices within the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books explaining which ones are accepted by which groups.
the account in the books Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, that presents the history of of Israel in the promised land, interpreting it a partial failure to keep the covenant faithfully, and the consequences of that failure. These books show significant theological and linguistic similarities, suggesting that they have a common editor or editors.
Dead Sea Scrolls
A group of manuscripts found beginning in 1947 in caves near the Dead Sea, at Wadi Qumran. The scrolls were probably the library of an Essene settlement that flourished at the site from the second century BCE until it was destroyed by Romans in 68 CE. The library included Hebrew manuscripts of biblical books older than those previously known, and other scrolls regulating the life of the community that shed light on the variety of Jewish beliefs and practices in the Roman period.
The scattering of Jews from the promised land Israel, and hence any Jews living outside Israel.
Gk- teaching an early Christian writing, dating from around 150 CE but including earlier materials. It consists of moral exhortation, a manual of church order, and guidance for community life. It is valuable for providing insight into concerns of early Christian communities, and contains material similar to that in the Pastoral Epistles.
the name in the Hebrew Bible for the first part of the longer section called "the Prophets." The Former Prophets are the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings.
Gk- gnosis, knowledge a philosophy that regards spirit and matter as opposites. According to Gnostic teaching, human beings are spirits trapped or imprisoned in matter; the material world is an illusion or the work of an inferior, even demonic, divine being; and the purpose of life is to learn how to free oneself from material things and attain eternal life in the spiritual realm. This is accomplished by learning specialized or secret knowledge about the nature of reality; it is from this emphasis on knowledge that gnosticism gets its name.
A general term for the variety of ancient translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek in antiquity, including the Septuagint, and the translations of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion.
A term used to refer to what Christians call the (Protestant) Old Testament. Though the two terms refer to the same body of writings, the order of books in the Hebrew Bible (Jewish Bible) differs from that found in the Old Testament.
The spread of Greek culture, politics, and language around the Mediterranean in the period after the conquests of Alexander the Great (d. 323 BCE)
Greek-speaking of influenced by Greek culture after the time of Alexander the Great
To bring under the influence of Greek language and culture. All Greeks.
The theory and practice of interpretation
Ignatius, Letters of
early Christian writing of instruction. the author. Ignatius, bishop of Antioch in the late first century CE, wrote them (seven have survived) on his way to martyrdom in Rome. They are largely concerned with overcoming divisions in local churches, combating false teaching, and conducting one's life properly.
(ca. 340-420) Christian theologian and translator. He translated the Bible into Latin, in the case of the Old Testament directly from the Hebrew. His version became known as the Vulgate ("common") because it was commonly used in western Christianity. With the Protestant Reformation, its authority was questioned, but was reaffirmed by the Roman Catholic Church at the Council of Trent.
The Writings, the third division of the Hebrew Bible.
The canonical division of Nevi'im that includes the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets
The usual English translation of Hebrew torah, which more generally means "teaching, instruction." Torah is also the name for the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, Genesis through Deuteronomy.
Italian phrase for French Language. Used to describe language developed for use in the ports around the Mediterranean. A common tongue or shared language that enables people with different native languages to converse, carry on commercial relationships, etc. In the Persian period Aramaic replaced Akkadian as a lingua franca around the Near East; during the Hellenistic period Greek did the same for the lands surrounding the eastern Mediterranean.
The roman numeral 70, the standard abbreviation for the Septuagint
(so-called because compared to the Major Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, they are much shorter)
The books from Hosea through Malachi; in the Hebrew Bible they are treated as one collection, "The Book of the Twelve."
the Prophets, the second division of the Hebrew Bible, subdivided into the Former Prophets and the Latter Prophets
Greek- 5 scrolls
The first fiive books of the Bible, Genesis through Deuteronomy, the Torah.
A Hellenistic Jewish philosopher and interpreter of scripture, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, from about 20 BCE to 50 CE. He wrote works in philosophy, scriptural interpretation, and history. In Philo's view, the best insights of Greek philosophy could be found in the Bible by means of allegorical interpretation. He influenced Jewish writers like the author of the Wisdom of Solomon and Christian theologians such as Clement, Origen, and Ambrose.
Gk-prophetes, speak out or speak forth the Septuagint translation of nabi' (one who is called), the standard Heb term for prophet. Synonyms include seer, man of God, and visionary.
the rulers of Egypt and its surrounding areas after the breakup of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great, following his death in 323
the settlement near Wadi Qumran at the Dead Sea, most likely composed of Essenes. The Qumran group was a sectarian Jewish community that kept its own practices in opposition to the established community in Jerusalem and Judea; the library of this group was discovered beginning in 1947 and is known as the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Period of Roman rule in Judea, beginning in 63 BCE
a long strip of parchment (treated leather) or papyrus (reeds split, moistened, and pressed together), on which a text was written in columns. The scroll was read by unrolling on side while rolling up the other, to expose successive columns of text.
the rulers of Syria and its surrounding areas after the breakup of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great, following his death, The Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV "epiphanes" desecrated the Temple in 167 BCE, leading to the Maccabean revolt and the re-dedication of the Temple in 164 BCE, and event commemorated in the festival of Hanukkah
the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. It was translated over a lengthy period of time beginning in about the third century BCE. Traditionally there were 72 translators, a number that was rounded to 70 and, in roman numerals, used as the abbreviation for this translation (LXX). It was prepared for the use of Jews who lived in the Diaspora whose main language was Greek. It is important for several reasons: it translated a version of the Hebrew text that is older than the Masoretic text; it contains additional works, grouped in NRSV as the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, most of which were originally written in Greek; and it was the Old Testament of early Christians.
an acronym formed from the beginning letters of the three divisions of the Hebrew Bible: Torah, Nevi'im, Ketubim
Thomas, Gospel of
An early collection of sayings attributed to Jesus. It contains no miracle stories and no account of Jesus' deeds, his birth, his death, or the resurrection. Some of the sayings resemble those in the canonical Gospels, but others reflect Gnosticism.
Heb- teaching, instruction the first division of the Hebrew Bible, consisting if Genesis through Deuteronomy. The word (and hence the title) is sometimes translated "law," but this translation is misleading since the five books contain much more than law codes and regulations. The Pentateuch- 5 books. Central of Judaism, Christianity. Ezra brings back from exile.
Twelve, Book of the
the Minor Prophets
Jerome's version of the Bible
Alexander the Great
..., (356-323 B.C.E.) Macedonian, adopted Greek culture took over Persia, and founded Alexandria, where the language was Greek and 1/3 of the population are Jewish. They become Hellenized and lost knowledge of Arameic and Hebrew. Needed a Bible: Torah of Septuagint translated in Greek. When he died kingdom was divided among generals; Pototemi and Zeluses
Held view that Christ was not coeternal like his father. Got into it with his Bishop Alexander. "There was when he was not"
..., A heresy common during the first Christian centuries that denied that Jesus was truly God; named after Arius, a priest and popular preacher from Alexandria, Egypt.
Coptic Orthodox Church. 367 AD, (297-373) bishop of Alexandria; fought against Arianism; upheld the position that Christ was divine
Athanasius' Easter Letter
Definite list of New Testament canon. Determines 27 books as authoritative
Augustine of Hippo
Latin Bible. One of greatest theologians, makes theological mistakes because his Greek is bad. Thought Bible should be translated from Greek not Hebrew.
Book of Enoch
..., oldest Jewish Apocalyptic text, Ethiopic Canon, not considered scripture. Father of Mathusela walked with God and was no more. Used in Ethiopic church
Constantine the Great
circa 272/282-337 CE. One of Diocletians "little Ceasars." Takes over properties of other three little ceasars. Legend is he had a dream that if he saw a cross or a cyra it was a sign to conquere. Conquered Rome. Had belief that once you were baptized your past sins were forggiven but afterwards they weren't, so was baptized on his death bed.
Council of Jamnia (Yavneh)
Rabbis and council get together and form first rabbitical canon. Acknowledgment of Hebrew Bible Canon
Council of Nicea
Has nothing to do with formation of Christian canon. Byzantium became Constantinople: Lingua France= Greek
The Latin Bible. (366-384 CE) Only Christian scholar to know Hebrew. Translate from Hebrew to Latin and will only consider the Old Testament as in Hebrew Bible.
Epistle of Barnabas
..., a Greek epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament; thinks the OT God belongs to Christians and only Christians exclusively, thinks God chose Jews as his chosen people But, Israel lost the convenant and Christians are the only true coventential group; all the things and traditions of Jews come from misunderstandings. COnfirms that Jesus was a real person
Gospel of Judas
..., gnostic gospel purposed to document conversations between the apostle Judas Iscariot and Jesus Christ. gospel written by gnostic followers of jesus. interpret judas's act not as betrayal, but rather as an act of obedience to the instructions of Jesus
Gospel of Mary
..., Non-canonical, talks about Jesus and Mary Magdalene's relationship., The Gospel of Mary exalts Mary Magdalene over the male disciples of Jesus. The Gospel of Mary provides important information about the role of women in the early church
Gospel of Peter
..., It is about the passion and resurrection of Christ. Certain aspects do not align with the canonical gospels such as Jesus feeling no pain on the cross, talking cross, and his emergence as a giant. Co0mmonalities with Matthew. Gnostic gospel.
Gospel of Philip
noncanonical gospel- depicts Mary Magdalene as Jesus's lover
Pope, compromised; books appear in Hebrew can translate directly. Books not in Hebrew - translated from Greek.
Wrote against Marcion in favor of the Four Gospels. Wasn't called Martyr until after he died
Pope Damascus I, Jerome, Saint Augustin, Pope Innocent I, standard bible for the Roman Catholic Church translated from Hebrew (also know as the Vulgate). Official transcript of the Council of Trent.
Provided first canonical listing. Was antiJewish. Evil God of old testament good god of new testament so threw out old testament. Abridged Luke (Luke and Acts, gentile), Ten Pauline Letters (included ones he seen as antiJewish), and No Old Testament. Subtracts from canon
1483-1546 CE. Father of reformation, rejected deutrocanonical books didn't like James. James said faith without works is dead. Luther didn't believe that. Didn't believe in book of Esther, God is not there. Apocryphal, early king James had them
included own works as Authoritative, saw himself as holy spirit. Added to the canon what no body saw as authoritative. Adds to canon
circa 190, It is a list of canonical books disputed and found by Meritorious. Includes, four gospels, acts, nine Pauline Epistles, two letters of John, Jude, Revelation of John, revelation of Peter, and Shepherd of Hermes (private reading)
..., a collection of 13 ancient papyrus codices translated from Greek into Coptic that were discovered by farmers near the town of Nag Hammadi in 1945, town where a library that holds the scrolls of the Gospel of Mary. These scrolls have been exposed to the elements since the 3rd century, survived 17 centuries.
of Alexandria. Goes in and out of being orthodox. Great commidators of scripture. Compiled by Eusebius. Authoritative- four gospels, Pauline Epistles, 1 Peter, 1 John, Acts, Revelation of John.
Confirmed authority of Matthew and Mark. Says Mark got it from Peter. Mark wrote down accurately but not in order.
measure, standard. Canon. Originally a collection of scrolls rather than codices. Determined by the ongoing life of the faith community
Shepherd of Hermes
..., fringe book with the most support. visions of a slave named Hermes. Jesus sends an angel to visit him. Shown as a figure who wants to do right. Plays an important issue, people were being baptized and then going on to sin in dramatic ways. Can you sin after baptism? Dominant position was no. Shepherd of Hermes leads to saying no other repentance after baptism. The book is dropped when this notion loses its importance, "Non-canonical" writings in use:
Writes against Marcion for four gospels. 2 century. "the father of Latin Christianity"oldest extant Latin writer to use the term Trinity. Works against Marcion.
A word meaning "covenant" the open-ended contract of love between God and human beings. Jesus' Death and Resurrection sealed God's New Covenant of love for all time
Gk- word of glory a prayer of praise to God, or one glorifying God
or textual criticism, as distinguished from higher criticism.
the effort to establish, by scholarly assessment of manuscript copies and other sources, an accurate version of a text; also called lower criticism.
Fifth century text from the Patriarchal Library in Alexandria, it was given as a gift to King Charles II of England in 1627. Now in the British Museum, London.
Fourth century text discovered by Constantin von Tischendorf at St. Catherine's Monastery on Mt. Sinai in 1844 and 1859. It may have originated in Palestine/Israel. Most of it was moved from Leningrad to the British Museum in 1933 but parts of it are located in Leipzig as Codex Frederico-Augustanus.
Fourth century text located in the Vatican Library. It may have originated in Lower Egypt.
Aram- father the word Jesus and early church used to address God
a Semitic language used widely in the Near East during the Persian period, though it developed earlier. It became the ordinary language of Jews, and was used by Jesus. An Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible is called Targum.
the use in another language of a word or grammatical form derived from Aramaic.
used in Hebrew bible "help" or "save, I pray" "Save, now!" shout of praise or adoration
Aram- teacher A Jewish religious leader who studies the Torah and its associated commentaries, particularly the Talmud, and offers his own teaching based on that study
translation of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic. The Tragums are important for textual criticism of the Hebrew text, since they provided evidence about it at a stage earlier than that of the Masoretic text.
Verily. declaration of affirmation found in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.
Meaning for meaning. Words do not always carry the same meaning from one language to another.
2 types: adapted translation and cultural reinterpretation
Word for word.
2 types: interlinear (extreme form) and literal translation
A smaller early civilization whose development of a monotheistic faith that provided the foundation of modern Judaism, Christianity, and Islam assured them a significant place in world history. Children of Israel. Sacred scriptural language for the Hebrew Bible
Common Greek-Hellenistic Greek
..., dedicated to God, 1. means "sacrifice": how Jews repent sins/communicate with Go., to perform sacrifices and give offerings to demonstrate devotion to God
..., A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
The third division of the Hebrew Bible. Ketuvim. Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah
Matthew 6:13b, Mark 16:9-20, John 5:4 and Acts 8:37 do not appear in the best of the ancient manuscripts of the biblical text. Why might each of these verses have been added to the biblical accounts in which they appear? How do they alter each of these biblical narratives?
Discuss the formal correspondence and dynamic equivalent philosophies of translation. What are the key gender related issues in the translation of 1 Timothy 3? How does the NRSV deal with these issues? How do other translations deal with these issues? What agendas outside of the text might impact the choices made in translating this chapter?
Discuss the typological interpretation of scriptures. How does the New Testament writer typologically adopt the Old Testament images of the serpents Leviathan and Rahab in Revelation 12:13-16? How do the Early Church Fathers introduce a new understanding of this serpent image in relation to Genesis 3 via Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28? How does a historical interpretation differ from a typological interpretation of these passages? Can a typological interpretation can be used today? Why or why not? If so, what might be an example?
the interpretation of a biblical text based upon its final form, rather than viewing it as an assemblage of pre-exisiting units
Gk- euangelion, good news the explanation or interpretation of the meaning of a written text
the interpretation of a text with particular attention to its genre and structure and to the original setting (Sitz im Leben) out of which it arose
A form of literature with particular characteristics
the effort to distinguish among the sources of biblical documents, and to trace them back to their origins; distinguished from "lower criticism" or textual criticism, which is concerned with establishing the most accurate text in its final form.
interpreting a text by trying to understand its original setting and audience, and that it would have meant when it was originally written or spoken. This method uses the tools of historical research to understand the conditions of the past, and critical tools to understand the traditional and developments that lie behind the surface of the text. It is also a general term that includes such methods as form criticism and redaction criticism.
Heb- derash, inquire interpretation that finds meanings in a text that are other than, or go beyond, the "plain sense"- contextual sense, the homiletical meaning
"Old Torah" Heb- oral instruction, from Shanah- repeat. -the compilation of oral law and rabbinic commentary, edited ca. 200 CE, that is the basis of the Talmud.
A monster of the sea in Canaanite mythology, who is defeated by Baal. It is sometimes identified with the crocodile and represents the forces of watery chaos which must be overcome at creation and that will be finally defeated at the end of time. In the Book of Revelation, the dragon, the enemy of God, is identified with the sea, and in the new creation there is no more sea.
a connected, orderly account of an incident, or a longer account including many incidents. Narratives can be historical, fictional, legendary, mythical, or a combination of types.
the study of how already existing textual units- narratives of incidents, laws, proverbs, or other isolatable pieces that can be disentangled by source critism- were combined into larger texts by the activities of editors, called redactors
editor who works with already exisiting units to combine them into larger wholes
Gk- rhetor, speaker, orator the art or study of persuasive speech or writing
Sitz im Leben
Situation in life identified by form criticism
the effort to discover the sources or documents behind a text and to explore how the sources were combined into larger units
Oral law, sayings of the father, both written and oral passed to Moses. Central text for rabbinical Judaism. Composed of Mishnah and Gemara.
Tradition Criticism (History of Tradition)
the investigation of the development of a text from its earliest stages (oral or original source documents) to the latest (canonical) stage
Ethnic and minority group interpretations advocated social and political change
African American Biblical Hermeneutics
ancient serpent, who is the Devil and Satan, sea monster
To study. In Judaism, commentaries on the Talmud, additional to the Mishnah. Amora'im translated Mishnah into Aramaic and expounded on it. Canonized into THE JERUSALEM TALMUD 395 and THE BABYONONIAN (BAVLI) TALMUD 500
author of the "Mishne Torah" a preeminent medieval Spanish, Sephardic Jewish philosopher, astronomer and one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars and physicians. "The great Eagle" Formulated 13 principles of Faith.
New Literary Criticism
Examines text using contemporary methods of literary study as finished literary work, like metaphors. Includes Rhetorical Criticism, Structuralism, reader response criticism, and post-structuralism/Deconstruction
The light and the heavy. The rule of logical argumentation by means of which a comparison is drawn on the lenient and stringent. Middot: Seven rules of Hillel
Mother of Boaz. Prostitute who hid Israelite spies, A prostitue who lived in Jericho. She let two spies of Joshua stay at her house. She deceived the king into going on a chase for them while in secret she hid them. The two spies promised to let her live when they take the city because of her good deed.
medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the Tanakh
A fallen angel or the devil; the Evil One. Devil, ancient serpent, dragon.
snake, bronze serpent, primordial dragon
closely related to source criticism. Uses the methods of the social sciences to examine the social context of the text's origin.
understanding persons or events, especially in the New Testament, by referring them to earlier biblical precursors
The minor prophets.
Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habukkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, have shorter works represented in the Bible.
Altar of Incense
This Altar was located inside the Tabernacle in a room called The Holy Place. Only special incense was to be continuously burned here (represented the prayers of the people lifted up to God). Two of Aaron's sons, Nadab and Abihu, were struck dead for offering an "illicit" fire at this altar.
Prayer and communication with God
Altar of Sacrifice
An Alter outside the temple where burnt sacrifices were made
A HEATHEN PROPHET who when consulted by BALAK, KING of MOAB, became CONCEITED and GREEDY. He was halted in his tracks by an angel and commanded to speak only on behalf of God.
Prophet paid by Balak, king of Moab, to curse Israel as they passed; his donkey spoke
One of the principal devils in Hell. Belial argues against further war with Heaven, but he does so because he is an embodiment of sloth and inactivity, not for any good reason. His eloquence and learning is great, and he is able to persuade many of the devils with his faulty reasoning.
Satan, Satanic, Devil--evil is connoted
The 7 churches of the Revelation:
Know where John's epistles were likely written.
Symbole for Matt. Mark, Luke, John
Holy of holies
The inner sanctuary of the Temple. In the rebuilt Temple, it was empty; the Ark of the Covenant had been hidden.
..., a shameless impudent scheming woman
Ahab's wife, Israel's queen who caused the people to turn to pagan gods
John was exiled to what island when he receives the revelation
7 golden candlesticks
Ephesus, Smyrnia, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicia
The burning lamps in Revelation 4 represent what?
Christ is portrayed as "the Eternal One" to which church?
A device in literature where an object represents an idea.
faithful elders who belonged to the 7 churches
A famous Pharisee who was Paul's teacher
(New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles
A city-state in ancient Greece
Rival of Hillel. More conservative rabbi than Hillel. Lived in the 1st cent. CE.
All 3 of Paul's missionary journeys began in the city of ________.
Area of west asia that included Turkey, Syria, and the Holy Lan
A Christian missionary who was Paul's companion in some of his travels. He introduced Paul to the apostles in Jerusalem.
He was reading in Isaiah when Phillip showed up beside his carriage and shared the gospel with him.
Acts 20:1 - After the uproar ceased, Paul sent for the disciples, and after encouraging them, he said farewell and departed for Macedonia.
A.D. 5-67 One of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first pope, bishop of Rome
23 year old who became king of Macedonia in 259 B.C.; transformed the Macedonian army into a good one so they could invade Greece
Ancient Rome, also known as Grandpa Rome, Roma Antiqua, and Roman Empire, is a character in the series Hetalia: Axis Powers. He is the grandfather to both North Italy and South Italy.