1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes, childhood influences personality formation; Studies: Birth Order
1913-1999; Field: development; Contributions: compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; Studies: The Strange Situation-observation of parent/child attachment
1925-present; Field: sociocultural; Contributions: pioneer in observational learning, stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play
1857-1911; Field: testing; Contributions: general IQ tests, designed test to identify slow learners in need of remediation-not applicable in the U.S. because too culture-bound (French)
(1953-) Evolutionary Psychologist; did experiment to find out what people want in a mate. Found that girls want material, guys want sex.
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1863-1930) First woman to complete the requirements for a Ph.D. in psychology; first woman to be elected president of the American Psychological Association
1928-present; Field: language; Contributions: disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
(1928-) sleep researcher - deprived patients of REM sleep and allowed them to sleep normally after the experimental period. discovered REM rebound.
1934-present; Field: emotion; Contributions: found that facial expressions are universal
1913-2007; Field: cognitive-behavioral; Contributions: Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions
1902-1994; Field: neo-Freudian, humanistic; Contributions: created an 8-stage theory to show how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
German-born British psychologist who developed a trait theory of personality that identifies the three basic dimensions of personality as neuroticism, extraversion, and psychoticism.
1919-1989; Field: social; Festinger discovered social cognition and cognitive dissonance.
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.
1939-present; Field: cognition (neuroscience); Studied of the neural basis of mind with primary responsibility for initiating human split-brain research. In his subsequent work he has made important advances in our understanding of functional lateralization in the brain and how the cerebral hemispheres communicate with one another.
1943-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the theory of multiple intelligences (logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic)
1910-2002; Field: perception; Gibson was an American psychologist. Among her contributions to psychology, the most important are the study of perception in infants and toddlers. She is popularly known for the "Visual Cliff" experiment in which precocial animals, and crawling human infants, showed their ability to perceive depth by avoiding the deep side of a virtual cliff. Along with her husband J. J. Gibson, she forwarded the concept that perceptual learning takes place by differentiation.
1936-pres; Field: cognition; Contributions: maintained that Köhlberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of boys and girls; girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles
G. Stanley Hall
american psycholgist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the united states and founded the american psychological association
1905-1981; Field: development; Contributions: realized that touch is preferred in development; Studies: Rhesus monkeys, studied attachment of infant monkeys (wire mothers v. cloth mothers)
(1904-2001) Pioneering hypnosis researcher and an advocate of the divided consciousness theory of hypnosis
Along with Torsten Wiesel discovered feature detector groups of neurons in the visual cortex that respond to different types of visual images
1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth
groupthink; opinions intensify when a group shares beliefs.
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
Conducted longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence)
A physiologist, he directed a sleep laboratory at the University of Chicago for decades. It was in his laboratory that REM sleep was discovered.
1927-1987; Field: cognition, moral development; Contributions: created a theory of moral development that has 3 levels; focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior
1926-2004; Field: development; Contributions: 5 stages the terminally ill go through when facing death (1. death, 2. anger/resentment, 3. bargaining with God, 4. depression, 5. acceptance)
came up with theory of lucid dreaming
cognitive theory of how people respond to stress; stress is minimized or maximized by individual's ability to respond