APUSH Chapter 26 Key Terms

Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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Terms in this set (23)
War Production BoardCreated to mobilize the wartime economy. Never able to win complete control over military purchases (army and navy often circumvented the board). Never able to satisfy complaints from small businesses about the board favoring large corporations. Power was transferred to Office of War Mobilization.Office of Price Administration (OPA)Created to fight inflation and helped moderate what had been a major problem in WWI. Not very popular because black-marketing and overcharging still grew.War Labor Disputes ActSmith-Connally Act required unions to wait 30 days before striking and which empowered president to seize struck war plant. Reaction to United Mine Workers defying the government. Public animosity toward labor rose rapidly and many states passed laws to limit union power.HolocaustA methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled. America had evidence of this happening but resisted demand to stop the killing (justified inaction by insisting they needed to focus on winning the war)Benito MussoliniHis government collapsed in response to American and British invasion of SicilyBattle of StalingradShowed that the threat of a Soviet Union collapse had diminished. The Red Army had successfully held off a major German assault at Stalingrad in southern Russia. Hitler had committed such enormous forces to the battle, and had suffered such appalling losses, that he could not continue his eastern offensive.North Africa CampaignBritish plan to drive Nazi empire out of Africa. Tied up a large proportion of Allied resources and postponed the planned May 1943 cross-channel invasion of FranceGeorge S. PattonHelped to drive the last of the Germans form Africa in May 1943George C. MarshallArmy chief of staff supported plan for a major Allied invasion of France across the English channel in the spring of 1943. The Soviet Union wanted this invasion to happen as soon as possible (because absorbing the brunt of the German war effort). Roosevelt chose the plan to attack the edges of the Nazi empire in northern Africa and southern Europe instead (following the British plan)Dwight D. EisenhowerPut in charge (by George C. Marshall) to plan the allied invasion of FranceBattle of Midway1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific (US regained control of the central Pacific)Chester NimitzUnited States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II (one of the broad offensives to turn the tide against the Japanese that would move from Hawaii towards major Japanese island outposts in central Pacific)Douglas MacArthurAmerican general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II (one of the broad offensives to turn the tide against the Japanese that move through Australia to the Philippines)