At the top of the "pyramid" was the Pharaoh. Below it was the upper class which included nobles and priests. They maintained the government and their own land. Below the upper class were merchants, artisans, scribes, and tax collectors. Merchants carried on an active trade up and down the Nile and in local markets. Egyptian artisans made a huge variety of well-built, beautiful goods: wooden furniture; gold, silver, and copper tools and containers; paper and rope made of papyrus; and linen clothing. At the very bottom was the farmers. In theory, the pharaoh owned all the land but granted portions of it to his subjects. Large sections of land were held by nobles and the priests who supervised the numerous temples. Most of the lower classes were peasants who farmed the land of these estates. They paid taxes in the form of crops to the pharaoh, nobles, and priests. They lived in small villages; and were forced to provide military service and labor for building projects
During this time period, girls got married around the age of 12 and boys got married around the age of 14. The purpose of the marriage was to produce children, mainly sons. Sons took on the family name.Women were treated well. They were able to keep property and inheritance.
In addition to developing a form of writing, other achievements did the ancient Egyptians accomplished were pyramids, temples, other monuments, mathematical advances, scientific advances, and developed an accurate 365 day calendar
The Zhou Dynasty is the longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history and they ruled for almost 800 years.
The Zhou kept the same _practices__ in place.
The Zhou dynasty claimed that it ruled China because it possessed the mandate of Heaven. The king was the link between the people and gods.
The concept of the heavenly mandate became a basic principle of the Chinese government.
The King was expected to rule according to the proper Way, called the Dao. It was the Zhou king's duty to keep the gods pleased to protect the people from Natural Disasters. If the king failed in his rule, he could be overthrown and replaced.
The dynastic cycle explains the change from one dynasty to the next.
The social classes under Zhou rule were primarily structured around land ownership. The peasants worked on lands owned by their lord. Each peasant family farmed an outer plot for its personal use and then joined with other families to work the inner one for their lord. A class of artisans and merchants lived in walled towns under the direct control of the local lord. Merchants did not operate freely but were considered the property of the local lord. There was also a slave class.
Warfare changed in China under Zhou rule. Iron weapons , which were more powerful than bronze weapons, came into use. Soldiers on horseback, or cavalry, were armed with the powerful crossbow, a Chinese invention of the seventh century b.c.
Eventually, one of the warring states - Qin - took control and created a new dynasty in 221 b.c.
The concept of family is based on filial piety. This concept means that the family must be subordinate to the male patriarch in the family.
Because of advances in farming tools and practices, China's population rose as high as 50 million people during Zhou rule.
One of the most important items of trade in China was silk. Chinese silk has been found throughout central Asia and as far away as Athens, Greece which indicates they were part of a trade network.
By the time of the Shang dynasty, the Chinese had developed a simple script. It was made up of pictographs and ideographs. There was a sound associated with each Chinese character when read aloud. Although the Chinese language has evolved continuously over a period of 4,000 years, it has never entirely abandoned its original format.