World History Chap. 11
Terms in this set (92)
What are the 3 dynasties?
Sui, Tang, Song
______ was characterized by disorder and Civil War.
______ was known for completing the Grand Canal, which linked the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). The new canal liknked the north and south, making it easier to ship rice from the south to the north
_______ was a cruel ruler. He used forced labor to build the Grand Canal, which he used to keep an eye on his empire. This practice, together with high taxes, his extravagant and luxurious lifestyle, and military failures, caused a rebellion. He was murdered, and his dynasty came to an end
_______ restored Civil Service exams (based upon Confucian ideals)
______ introduced steel for weapons, cotton to making clothes, and revival of Silk Road Trade
lasted for 300 years
Early _____ rulers created a more stable economy by giving land to the peasants and breaking up the large estates to reduce the power of their owners. They also restored the civil service examination to serve as the chief method of recruiting officials for the civilization bureaucracy.
Tang rulers worked hard to restore the power of China in _______. They brought peace to northwestern China and expanded China's control into the area north of the Himalaya-known as _______.
East Asia; Tibet
_______ claimed to be the greatest power in East Asia. Neighboring states offered tribute to China. The Chinese imperial court also set up diplomatic relations with the states of Southeast Asia.
_______ were unable to prevent plotting and government corruption.
____________ is remembered for his devotion to a commoners daughter, Yang Guifei. In order o entertain her, he kept hundreds of dancers and musicians at court.
Emperor Tang Xuanzomg
Finally, _____________ favorite general led a bloody revolt. THe army demanded that someone be held accountable for the war and strife in the country. For this reason, the emperor invited his true love to hang herself from a nearby tree.
Emperor Tang Xuanzomg's
The ________ dynasty then weakened and became prey to rebellions. They hired Vighurs, a northern tribal group of Turkic-speaking people to fight for them. Continued unrest, however, led to the collapse of ______ rule in 907.
______ ruled during a period of prosperity and cultural acheivement
From the start, the _____ dynasty experienced problems, especially from northern neighbors. These groups crossed northern China and occupied large parts of Chinese territory. Because of this threat, _____ rulers were forced to move the imperial court
The ____ dynasty lost control of Tibet and could never overcome the challenge from the north
During the Song dynasty, the _____ carried out wars of conquest and built a vast empire. Within 70 years they controlled China. They overthrew the Song Dynasty
-created system of algebra
-paper money (banking system)
-guilds (an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town)
_____ was a monarchy that employed a relatively large bureaucracy to maintain an orderly government
The ______ & _______ dynasties restored the merit-based selection of civil servants begun in the Qin dynasty.
Beyond the capital, ______ was based on provinces, districts, and villiages
______ ideals were still the cement that held the system together
during the ___ and ___ dynasties, the Chinese economy grew in size and complexity
- agriculture flourished
- manufacturing and trade grew dramatically
- ________ families had taken control of most of the land, and the majority of peasants had become serfs and slaves
- the Song government helped the poor peasants obtain their land
- these techniques led to an abundance of food
Sui; Song; aristocratic
technological developments added new products and stimulated ______
-During the _____ dynasty, the Chinese began to make steel for swords by mixing cast iron and wrought iron
- the intro to cotton made it possible to make new kinds of clothes
During the tang dynasty, ______ was also created. It was used to make explosives and a primitive flame - thrower called a fire-lance
_____ also changed during the Tang dynasty. State officials had controlled most long-distance trade. By the time of the ______, guilds began to appear, along with a new money economy. With the increased flow of paper money, banking began to develop
The _________ helped revive trade during the Tang dynasty. It carried goods between China and Southwest Asia and South Asia. More than a trading route, was a conduct of ideas.
Three Religions- ______, Christianity, and Islam spread along the Silk Road
technical knowledge from China reached ______ along the Silk Road
________ with regions near China, such as Japan and Korea increased during the Tang and Song dynasties. As a result, _______(which was filled with temples and palaces) became the wealthiest city in the world
-the Italian merchant ________ described the Song capital to European readers as one of the largest and wealthiest cities on Earth
In China, entertainment included playing cards and chess, the paddle wheel boat and horseback riding, the invention of ________ in the eighth century provided new ways to communicate
this group controlled much of the land and at the same time produced most of the candidates for the civil service.They also replaced the old landed aristocracy as the political and economic elite of Chinese society
In _______ society, when a girl married she became part of her husband's family. In addition, a girl's parents were expected to provide a dowry, - money, goods, or property- to her husband when she married
In Chinese society, poor people often sold their _____ to wealthy villagers
The ____ rose to power in Asia fast
_____ was elected Genghis Khan of the mongols; he devoted himself to conquest
-had great military tactics that set them apart from their enemies
-brought much of the Eurasian landmass under a single rule, creating the largest land empire in history
-to rule new Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan set up a capital city at Karakorum
-After the death of Genghis Khan, the empire began to change
-the once unified empire was split into several separate territories called _______, each under the rule of one of his sons
After the _____ attacked China, the Mongols introduced the use of gun power and firearms into Europe
_______ set up a new Chinese dynasty; the Yuan. He also established his capital at Khanbalik, later known as Beijing
Under the leadership of the ______, the empire continued to expand. Parts of Vietnam were conquered
The ______ had more success ruling China. They became a separate class with their own laws
Over time, the _____ dynasty won the support of many Chinese people. They came to respect the stability and prosperity that the Mongols brought.
By bringing the entire Eurasian landmass under a single rule, the Mongols increased trade especially along the _______. The Mongol dynasty ended because of too much spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and growing internal instability
In 1368 _________ put together an army, ended the Mongol dynasty and set up the Ming dynasty
_______ brought to China from India in the first century, denied essence of Confucian teachings, criticized for being a corrupt foreign religion, believed the material world is not real; it is an illusion
___________ originated during the Song dynasty, evolved from Confucianism, supported by Song dynasty rulers, believed that fulfillment comes from participation in the world, believed that the material world is real; it is not an illusion
-recieved official government suport until the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century
-believed that humans live in the material world but are also linked to the Supreme Ultimate in the spiritual world
-rivaled the influence of Confucianism
-supported by _____ and _____ dynasty rulers
-believed that all things are one and that one cannot know the whole truth
period between the ____ and ____ dynasties was the great age of Chinese literature
the invention of _______ made literature more readily available
_____ flourished during the period of literature and art (period between the Tang and Ming Dynasties)
_____ and _____ were two of the most popular poets during the Tang era. Li Bo was a free spirit whose writing often centered around nature. Du Fu was a serious Confucian
Li Bo; Du Fu
_____ artists tried to reveal the hidden forms of the landscape. Tang artisans perfected the making of porcelain
In early Japan, _____ played an important role in the development of Japanese history. This made japan different from Chinese societies.
______ was very mountainous. Only 11% of land can be farmed and volcanic soils are very fertile, which has helped Japanese farming. The area is prone to earthquakes
Because of Japan's geographical isolation, the _______ developed a number of unique qualities. These qualities contributed to the Japanese belief that they had a destiny separate from that of the peoples of the continent.
ancestors of present-day Japanese settled in the Yamato Plain near the modern cities of Osaka and Kyoto. Their society was made up of ______. The people were divided between a small __________ (the rulers) and a large population of rice farmers, artistans, and household servants.
clans; aristocratic class
In Japan, the local ruler of each clan protected the people in return for a share of the annual _______.
In Japan, eventually, one ruler of the _______ clan acheived supremacy over the others and became, in effect, ruler of Japan
_________, a Yamato prince, tried to unify the various clans so that the Japanese could more effectively resist an invasion by the Chinese
To do this, _______ sent representatives to the Tang capital of China to learn how the Chinese organized their government. He then began to create a centralized system of government, based roughly on the Chinese model. His objective was to limit the powers of the aristocrats and enhance his authority
The territory of ______ was divided into administrative districts, and the senior official of each district was selected from among the local nobles. A new tax system was set up. Now all farmland technically belonged to the state. All taxes were to be paid directly to the ___________
Japan; central government
After Shotoku Taishi's death, ______ central government could not overcome the power of the aristocrats.
During the Heian period, with the decline of central power, local aristocrats took justice into their own hands. They turned to _________, and a new class of military servants emerged.
Called the ________, these warriors fought on horseback and clad in helmet and armor. They were suppose to live by a strict warrior code known as ______.
Durinf the Kamakura Shogunate, rivalries among Japanese aristocratic families had led to almost constant civil war. A powerful noble named _________ defeated several rivals and set up his power near the modern city of Tokyo. He centralized military government spanning from 1192-1333. This lasted until devastating wars with the ________ strained their political system. Eventually, local aristocrats took over power again, and central authority disappeared
Minamoto Yoritomo; Mongols
Life in early Japan
-was mostly a _______ society
-grew wet rice
-trade in Japan was slow to develop
-manufacturing began to develop during the Kamakura period. Industries such as the making of paper and procelain emerged. Trade between regions also grew
-Foreign trade, mainly with Korea and China, began
In Japan, _____ may have had a certain level of equality with men. Wives who were abandoned could divorce and remarry. Later practices show women were subordinate to men. A husband could divorce his wife if she didnt produce a son or if she commited adultery, talked too much, was jealous, or had a serious illness. _______ women were prominent in court
Religion and Culture
The beliefs of early Japanese people evolved into a religion called _______. However, it did not satisfy the spiritual needs of all the Japanese people, and some turned to _______.
After driving out the Chinese in the A.D. 200s, three separate kingdoms emerged in _______: Koguryo (north), Paekche (southwest), and Silla (emerged). Gradually, with the support of the ______ dynasty of China, the kingdom of Silla gained control of the peninsula. Finally, in the early tenth century, a new dynasty called _______ arose in the north, which adopted Chinese political institutions.
Korea; Tang; Koryo
India after the Guptas
-________ retained widespread acceptance among the Indian people
-one group believed that they were following the original teachings of the Buddha. They called themselves the school of ________, "the teachings of the elders". Followers insist that an understanding of oneself is the chief way to gain nirvana, or release from the "wheel of life"
-________ stressed transforming oneself throuhg moral conduct and meditation
Buddism; Theravada; Theravada
The school, Mahayana Buddism, believed that Theravada teachings were too strict for ordinary people. To them, Buddha is a wise figure. _______ is not just a release from the wheel of life, but a true heaven. Through _______ to the Buddha, people can achieve salvation in this heaven after death
Neither ______ or ________ remained popular in India. Carried by monks to China, Korea, Southeast Asia, and Japan, the practice of Buddism has remained active in all four areas to the present
Religion in India
______ had a major impact on Indian civilization. At the end of the tenth century, however, a new phase of Islamic expansion took place when a group of rebellious ________ slaves founded a new Islamic state known as Ghaznas. When the founder died, his son ___________ succeeded him. He began to attack Hindu kingdoms to the Southeast. Before he died, he was able to extend his rule throughout the upper Indus Valley and as far south as the Indian Ocean.
Islam; Turkish; Mahmud of Ghazna
Resistance against Mahmud of Ghazna was lead by Rajputs, who were ______ warriors. They fought bravely, but their military tactics were no match for the cavalry of the invaders. By 1200, Muslim power had reached over the entire plan of ______.
_______ was the ruler of a MOngol state based in Samarqand. He seized power in 1369 and immediately launched a program of conquest. He placed the entire region east of the Caspian Sea and then occupied Mesopotamia.
When Timur Lenk died, two new challenges appeared. One came from the north in the form of the _______, a newly emerging nomadic power. The other came from Europe, from Portuguese traders arriving by sea in search of gold and spices.
Difference between Muslim rulers of India and the Hindu population of India
-viewed themselves as foreign conquerers
-they tried to maintain a strict separation between the Muslim ruling class and the Hindu population
-intolerant of other faiths (used peaceful means to try to get people to convert to Islam
-accepted the need to tolerate religious differences because of how many Hindu's there were
-lived on the land and farmed their tiny plots
-many people lived in cities
-in cities you could find landed elites and rich merchants
Maharaja (________) rules states in India
______/________ were main sources of income. India's location made it the center for trade
______architects built monumental Hindu temples
The use of ________ in fiction was well established in India by the sixth and seventh centuries. In "The Adventures of the Ten Princes," _______ created a fantastic world, fusing history and ficiton
In _____ temples, each temple consisted of a central shrine surrounded by a tower, a hall for worshipers, an entryway, and a porch, all set in a rectangular courtyard.
-two major parts
-_________ region, extending southward from the Chinese border down to the tip of Malay Peninsula
-consists of mountain ranges, fertile river valleys and forests
-these geographical barriers explain why Southeast Asia is one of the few regions in Asia that was never unified under a single _______.
mainland; archipelago; government
What influence did China have on Vietnam (or Dai Viet)?
Vietnamese rulers realized the advantages of taking over Chinese model of centralized government. The new Vietnamese state, which called itself Dai Viet, adopted state Confucianism. The rulers called themselves emperors and adopted Chinese court rituals. They also introduced the civil service examination.
-Jayavarman, considered a god-king united the ______ people and moved capital to Phnom Penh
Thai and Burmese
The ____ gorups flourished while locating Auytthaya
-Burmese flourished along the Salween and Irrawaddy Rivers and they founded the kingdom of _______
What similarities do the Thai and Burmese share?
converted to Buddism and held political power and economic wealth
The Malay World
-In the Malay Peninsula and Indonesian archipelago
-Malay united around the 1200s to form the Majapahit
-Which empire do they eventually join?
They converted to Islam and became part of the sulnate of Melaka
Southeast Asian culture
types of cultures
1.agricultural (Vietnam, ______, Pagan)
2. trading (sulnate of Melaka)
-mostly headed by ______ who lived in major cities
-more rights for women (than in China or India)
-borrowed cultural aspects from the Chinese (architecture)