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Terms in this set (17)
differential association theory AO1
cognitive theory AO3
RS, palmer and Hollin comapred moral reasoning of male and female non offenders and convicted offenders. convicts = less mature.
practical applications eg CBT.
cognitive expl doesn't account for individual differences.
langdon et al suggested that intelligence may be a better predictor or criminality than moral reasoning.
cognitive theory AO1
beh is caused by the way people think. levels of moral reasoning: pre conventional, conventional, post conventional. criminals show lower levels. pre conventional = childlike reasoning will commit crimes for rewards. cognitive distortions = error or biases in thinking. Hostile attribution bias = interpret actions as aggressive. Minimalisation = fail to take responsibility
Eysenck's criminal personality theory AO3
research support., Eysenck x2 compared 2070 male prisoners with 2422 male controls.
limitations of RS, farrington, extroversion and neuroticism are irrelevant.
criminal beh cant be explained by a single personality type.
personality may have a genetic basis.
Eysenck's criminal personality theory AO1
personality = collection of traits that can be categorised in terms of extroversion and neuroticism. extroverts have an under active nervous system. neurotics have a more reactive nervous system. a typical criminal is neurotic and an extrovert with high scores of psychoticism. Psychoticism is cold unemotional and prone to aggression. socialisation refers to the ability to condition them. Criminal personality is harder to condition, more likely to be anti-social
neural explanation AO3
research support, reduced emotional response to other people cant think rationally.
only explains violent crimes
top down approach AO1
behavioural analytical tool. pre existing templates made based on interviews of 36 sexually motivated serial killers. 2 types of criminals organised and disorganised. offenders have a way of working that correlate with a set of social and psychological characteristics relating to the individual. used by FBI
neural explanation AO1
our emotions allow us to empathise with others. empathy = understand their emotional state of mind. criminals can ignore or lack empathy. APD = anti-social personality linked to reduced emotional responses in the pre frontal cortex.
genetic explanation AO3
research support, Lange twin studies 10 MZ twins had a twin in prison and 2 DZ twins had a twin in prison.
problems with RS, small sample and same upbringing.
research support for diathesis stress model, mednick et al 13000 adoptees, adoptive and biological parents.
reductionist, can be learned.
genetic explanation AO1
offenders inherit a gene/combination that predispose them to commit crime. crime is inherited. genetic analysis has linked criminals to the MAOA gene (linked to aggressive behaviour) and the CDH13 gene which is linked to substance abuse. Diathesis stress model, environmental trigger. investigated with twin sudies
atavistic theory AO3
research support, lombroso examined over 4000 skulls.
influential, makes criminology more scientific.
research against, goring found no facial differences between 3000 criminals and 3000 non criminals.
facial features of a criminal
narrow sloping brow, strong prominent jaw, high cheekbones and facial asymmetry
atavistic theory AO1
lombroso argued that criminals are biologically different to non criminal. criminals are less evolved so they find it harder to adapt to civilised society. criminal behaviour is natural. distinguishable facial and cranial features.
bottom up approach AO3
research support canter and heritage, content analysis of 66 sexual assault cases many characteristics in common.
research support canter and lundrigan, 120 murder cases showed centres of gravity.
ethical implications, lead to incorrect arrest.
more objective and scientific, data driven.
wider application, used for all crimes.
bottom up processing AO1
systematic analysis. informs the offenders likely behaviour and social background. investigative psychology: matches details of the crime scene with statistical analysis of a typical offender. impersonal coherence = the way the offender behaves at the scene reflects their behaviour in non crime scenes. geographical profiling. Circle theory. marauders and commuters. centre of gravity all crimes start there
top down approach AO3
practical application, still in use. Only applies to particular crimes, cant apply to burglary. based on outdated models. classification is too simple.
4 main stages in the construction of an FBI profile
data assimilation = the profiler reviews the evidence. crime scene classification = either organised or disorganised. crime reconstruction = hypotheses in terms of sequence of events, behaviour of the victim etc. profile generation = hypotheses related to the likely offender.
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