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65 terms

Chapter 10 Muscular System

STUDY
PLAY
myology
The study of the muscular system is known as
secretion
All of the following are functions of muscles except
antagonists
What term best describes the relationship between the pronator quadratus and supinator?
fascicles
Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called
fleshy attachment
Which of the following describes an appearance of red muscular tissue emerging directly from bone rather than being separated from it by an obvious tendon?
pennate
The rectus femoris is what muscle shape?
fascia
What separates groups of muscles?
intrinsic
Which term below best describes the deltoid?
synergists
Which term best describes the relationship of the deltoid and SITS muscles during shoulder abduction?
receiving calcium ions from the nerve ending
A muscle fiber depends on which of the following for excitation?
fusiform
The semitendinosus is an example of what muscle shape?
diaphragm
Which of the following muscles is the prime mover for inhalation?
trapezius
Which of the following extensors of the head is the most superficial?
galea aponeurotica
The occipitalis and frontalis are connected via the
levator palpebrae superioris
Which of the following muscles of facial expression is not innervated by the facial nerve?
modiolus
A point of convergence for several muscles of the lower face is called the
masseter
The ________ originates on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the angle of the mandible.
digastric
Which one of these muscles helps to open the mouth (depress the mandible)?
accessory and vagal nerves
What is(are) the innervations(s) of the palatoglossus?
temporalis
Which of the following muscles of mastication would be responsible for mandibular elevation?
inguinal ligament
The aponeurosis of the external oblique forms a(n) ________ at its inferior margin.
transverse abdominal
The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the
erector spinae
While sitting in your desk, you drop your pencil onto the floor. You bend over to pick up the pencil. In order to straighten up and continue your exam you must use which of the following muscles?
transverse abdominal
Which of the following muscles is not externally visible on the trunk of the body?
quadratus lumborum
Unilateral contraction of which muscle causes ipsilateral flexion of the lumbar vertebral column?
knee and hip extensors
In lifting a heavy weight from the floor, one should use the power of the ___ in order to avoid muscle strain in the lower back.
sternocleidomastoid
In a whiplash injury, the neck undergoes forced hyperextension then hyperflexion, injuring multiple muscles in the neck. Which of the following muscles would be injured during the hyperextension phase of the injury?
rectus abdominis
Tendinous intersections divide the _______ into segments externally visible on the abdomen of a well-muscled person.
parallel; bipennate
The rectus abdominis is a(n) ________ muscle, while the rectus femoris is a(n) ______ muscle.
sternal manubrium and medial one-third of clavicle; mastoid process and lateral half of superior nuchal line
Which of the following correctly states the origin and insertion of the sternocleidomastoid?
trapezius and serratus anterior
The muscles that laterally rotate and depress the scapula, as in shrugging and lowering the shoulders, are the
accessory nerve
Which cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius?
diaphragm
Which muscle of respiration is innervated by the phrenic nerve?
orbicularis oris
After taking their wedding vows, a bride and groom often ceremonially use which of the following muscles before walking away from the altar?
sternothyroid
Which muscle originates at the manubrium, inserts on the thyroid cartilage, and aids in singing low notes?
external urethral sphincter
Some people suffer involuntary urination because of incompetence of what muscle?
True, the coccygeus is innervated by the 3rd and 4th sacral nerves and assists the levator ani.
True or False: A sacral fracture affecting the S3 and S4 nerve roots would result in a person having difficulty with evacuation of the bowels.
supraspinatus
A baseball pitcher who injures one of his SITS muscles most commonly sustains tears to the tendon of which muscle?
It rotates the scapula and depresses the apex of the shoulder.
Which of the following is true regarding the levator scapulae?
adductor pollicis
Which of the following is an intrinsic muscle of the hand?
long thoracic nervenerve
The serratus anterior is innervated by which nerve
latissimus dorsi
Which muscle acting on the arm assists in deep inspiration?
flexor digitorum profundus tendon.
A butcher who cuts the distal portion of his fingers may cut the
pronator teres
When a nurse draws blood, it is not uncommon for the needle to penetrate which muscle near the cubital region?
biceps brachii.
The antagonist for the triceps brachii is the
It directly inserts on all digits of the hand except the thumb.
Which of the following best describes the insertion of the extensor digitorum?
extensor carpi radialis longus
Tennis elbow is a common term describing injury to which of the following?
abductor digiti minimi
An injury that results in complete functional loss of the ulnar nerve will affect which
flexor retinaculum
Carpal tunnel pressure is sometimes relieved by surgically excising part or all of which structure?
sartorius
The longest muscle in the human body is the
adductor longus
Which of the following muscles is in the medial compartment of the thigh?
4
Which muscle(s) in the figure insert(s) on the head of the fibula?
2, 4 and 5
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) innervated by the tibial nerve?
1, 2 and 5
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) responsible for medially rotating the tibia?
3
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) responsible for abducting and medially rotating the thigh?
1
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) innervated by the obturator nerve?
True, the deep fibular nerve innervates the anterior compartment of the leg.
True or False: Injury to the deep fibular nerve would cause inability to extend ones toes.
False, the triceps surae consists of the gastrocnemius and soleus.
True or False: The triceps surae consists of three muscles in the lower limb.
ruptured calcaneal tendon
A clinician induces contraction of the gastrocnemius and soleus and notices that the foot does not plantar flex as expected. Which of the following would be a logical diagnosis?
atrophy of the flexor digiti minimi.
A male sustains a crushing injury to his foot. After weeks of care, he begins to notice that he cannot bend the little toe on his right foot. A logical diagnosis would be
calcaneal tendon; his triceps surae
A heavyset middle-aged insurance salesman who doesn't exercise often accepts his friend's invitation to a pickup basketball game. When attempting a jump shot, he falls to the ground in pain, grasping at the calf of his leg. There is an enormous bulge in his leg immediately below the knee, and he is unable to plantarflex that foot. Most likely he has injured his ___ and the bulge is ___.
biceps femoris
An Olympic sprinter readies for a race. After the sound of the starting gun, he propels himself forward from the starting block and immediately grimaces in pain, grabbing for the back of his thigh. Within 48 hours he begins noticing extensive bruising on the back of his thigh extending into the back of the knee. He now has difficulty rising from a seated position and flexing his knee. Bending at the waist generates more pain. Which muscle is likely injured?
thigh adductors
After childbirth a woman begins experiencing tremendous pain in her groin, making it difficult for her to walk. She has difficulty walking due to the pain. An X-ray shows a fracture extending from her symphysis pubis to the inferior ramus of the pubis. As a result of the fracture, which group of muscles might be impaired?
quadriceps femoris
A skydiver's parachute fails to deploy. After some struggle, his reserve chute deploys in time to save his life. However, his landing is harder than normal and he feels his knee slightly hyperextend. He shakes it off and goes about his normal routine. Later that day he begins experiencing knee pain. Two days later he notices that his knee "pops" when he crouches and soon discovers he has dislocated his femur on the knee. What muscle was likely injured initially?
piriformis
A skateboarder falls and lands directly on his buttocks and lower back. He does not feel too much pain and so he continues skating. After a couple of days he begins experiencing right hip pain and notices his right foot and leg are rotated to the right. A doctor diagnoses muscle spasm. Which of the following muscles is most likely causing the leg and foot rotation?