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Life 102 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5
Terms in this set (26)
What are the functions of membranes?
to separate compartments and to control traffic of molecules in/out of compartments
What are the major structural components of membranes?
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
What are the characteristics of a "fluid-mosaic" plasma membrane?
Membrane viscosity is influenced by what factors?
-Type of phospholipids
What is the role of cholesterol?
- in animals only
- fluidity buffer
- temperature buffer
- more fluid when cold (less fluid when hot)
What are integral membrane proteins
proteins that pass all the way through the membrane
What are peripheral membrane proteins?
proteins that bind to the membrane without passing through it
How are small, non-polar molecules transported across membranes?
What are the properties of diffusion?
The spontaneous movement of substance from high concentration to low concentration or down its concentration gradient.
Does diffusion require energy?
What kind of molecules require a transport system?
large polar molecules and ions
How do passive and active transport differ?
active requires energy, passive does not
What is osmosis?
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
What drives osmosis?
the difference in water concentration across a selectively permeable membrane
What are hypertonic solutions?
-Solutions with a lower water potential than the cell are hypertonic.
What are hypotonic solutions
-Solutions with a higher water potential compared with the inside of the cell are called hypotonic.
What is a isotonic solution?
The concentration of solutes is equal inside and outside the cell so water moves across the membrane in both directions maintaining cell size
Which way does water move between these various types of solutions?
What happens to plant and animal cells placed in these 3 solutions?
How are larger molecules moved across membranes?
What is exocytosis?
a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
what is Endocytosis
the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
What is the membrane potential
a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane
What is an electrochemical gradient?
A gradient of electrochemical potential, for an ion that passes through a membrane. (electrical potential and chemical concentration).
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