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Life 102 Exam 2 Chapter 7: How Cells Harvest Energy
Terms in this set (25)
What happens when a molecule is oxidized?
It loses an electron
What does OIL RIG mean?
oxidation is loss, reduction is gain
What is a redox reaction?
the movement of electrons from one molecule to another
Why doesn't the temperature of a cell increase when glucose is catabolized
Not all the energy from glucose gets metabolized; so not all the energy is released as heat.
Where does the energy from glucose metabolism go?
Pyruvate and it makes 2ATP
What is NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)?
an electron carrier
What is the role of NAD+ in respiration?
it acts as an electron acceptor and thus oxidizes reactants. It also allows for glucose to be broken down in multiple steps rather than all at once by transferring electrons down from one step to another.
What is the electron transport chain?
Is a sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons,
down a series of reactions that release energy; used to make ATP.
Where is the electron transport chain located?
inner mitochondrial membrane
What is the electron transport chain's function?
to break the large free-energy drop from food to O2 into smaller steps that release energy in manageable amounts
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
This is when the other ATP-producing reactions occur without oxygen, while still others occur with the aid of oxygen.
What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
ATP synthesis when the phosphate donor is a substrate with high phosphoryl transfer potential
What are the three main steps linking the breakdown of glucose to the synthesis of ATP?
Glycolysis; Citric acid cycle; oxidative phosphorylation.
Is there more or less energy in NADH as compared to NAD+?
More energy in NADH
Where does the Citric Acid Cycle occur?
Where does electron transport occur within the mitochondrion?
Inner membrane of the mitochondria
How is electron transport coupled to ATP synthesis
It pushes the hydrogen ions out of the mitochondria membrane and that creates potential energy through a electrochemical gradient and then they go through the ATP synthesis protein as kinetic energy and the ATP synthesis protein uses that kinetic energy to synthesize ATP from ADP.
What is the role of H+ transport?
to create potential energy which can be later used as kinetic energy.
How is H+ transport used to drive ATP synthesis?
Electron transport is coupled to the formation of a proton (H+) gradient across a membrane. The energy in this proton gradient is then used to power ATP synthesis.
What is the net yield of ATP from glycolysis?
4 but uses 2
What is the net yield of ATP from the citric acid cycle?
What is the net yield of ATP from the Electron transport?
What is the net yield of ATP from oxidative phosphorylation?
What happens when molecular oxygen is not available for cellular respiration?
fermentation-for animals it is when glucose is broken down into latic acid, CO2, and water. In plants glucose is broken down to ethanol, CO2, and water.
what is aerobic metabolism?
when glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen so O2 is available and it yields 36 ATP
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