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Genes are carried on ______.


A(n) ______ is an example of an organism that can reproduce asexually.


The chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are found in the ______.

DNA and protein

Chromatin consists of ______.

DNA wrapped around histone proteins

Nucleosomes are made of ______.


A duplicated chromosome consists of two ______.


Sister chromatids are joined at the ______.

DNA is synthesized.

Which of the following occurs during interphase?

two diploid cells, each with the same amount of genetic material and the same genetic information

The cell cycle results in the production of ______.

The mitotic spindle begins to form.

Which of the following occurs during prophase?


Which of the following is a stage of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

The correct sequence of stages of mitosis is ______.

chromosomes line up on the midline of the cell

During metaphase ______.

Centromeres divide.

Which of these events occurs during anaphase?

the events of prophase are reversed

During telophase ______.

have two nuclei

A cell that completed the cell cycle without undergoing cytokinesis would ______.


Cytokinesis occurs during the ______ stage of mitosis.


A couple has two female children. What is the probability that their next child will be male?


In humans, free earlobes (E) are dominant to attached earlobes (e) and the presence of freckles (F) is dominant to the absence of freckles (f). If an individual heterozygous for both of these traits were to mate with an individual with attached earlobes and no freckles, what is the probability of having a child with attached earlobes and freckles?

wild-type trait

The ______ is most commonly found in nature.

is a carrier

An individual heterozygous for cystic fibrosis ______.


Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes are called ______.

The phenotype of the heterozygote falls between the phenotypes of the homozygotes.

What is the key to the recognition of incomplete dominance?

incomplete dominance

An individual with (naturally) curly hair and an individual with (naturally) straight hair mate; all of their offspring have (naturally) wavy hair. What is the relationship between the alleles for hair texture?


An individual with (naturally) curly hair and an individual with (naturally) straight hair mate; all of their offspring have (naturally) wavy hair. If an individual with wavy hair mates with an individual with straight hair, what is the probability that their child will have curly hair?

The heterozygote expresses the phenotype of both homozygotes.

What is the key to the recognition of codominance?


An individual with the blood group genotype LMLN has the phenotype MN. What is the relationship between the LM and LN alleles?

1 MN : 1 N

An individual with the blood group genotype LMLN has the phenotype MN. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross between a person with phenotype N and a person with phenotype MN?


Marfan syndrome is the result of inheriting a single allele. Individuals with Marfan syndrome are tall and long-limbed, and have both cardiovascular and eye defects. The inheritance of Marfan syndrome is an example of ______.

The trait exhibits a continuous distribution.

What is the key to the recognition of a trait whose expression is determined by the effects of two or more genes (polygenic inheritance)?


In humans, the inheritance of ______ is best explained as being polygenic.

the behavior of chromosomes during anaphase I and anaphase II

What is the basis of Mendel's laws?


______ genes violate Mendel's principle of independent assortment.

linked genes

What is the best explanation for a BbCc × bbcc cross producing offspring in a 5:5:1:1 phenotypic ratio?


35) How many molecules of glucose are produced by each cycle of the light reaction?


One of the compounds that is a direct output of the Calvin cycle is ______.

CO2 . . . RuBP

The first step of the Calvin cycle is the incorporation of ______ into ______.

regeneration of RuBP

The last stage of one complete turn of the Calvin cycle involves ______.

No sugar would be made by the plant.

If an herbicide blocked the Calvin cycle before the generation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), which of the following statements would be true?

keeping their stomata closed most of the time

C4 plants conserve water by ______.

keeping their stomata closed at night

CAM plants conserve water by ______.


The ultimate source of (nearly) all energy in food produced on Earth is ______.

preventing the radiation of heat from Earth to space

The primary mechanism by which CO2 contributes to global warming is by ______.

increases the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere

Cutting down trees ______.

all of the above

Which of the following contribute(s) to global warming?
A) burning carbon-based fossil fuels
B) clear-cutting forests
C) releasing CFCs
D) burning coal

were prokaryotes

The first cells to split water ______.


The first cells to release oxygen gas into the atmosphere were ______.


Oxygen is highly corrosive; therefore, which of the following would provide definitive evidence of large amounts of O2 in the atmosphere?

all of the above

Plants provide which of the following to humans?
A) food
B) energy source (fuel)
C) oxygen
D) raw materials


Which of the following is an autotroph?


In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?

taking in carbon dioxide and making carbohydrates

Photosynthesis contributes to plant growth by _____.

Different species of plants produce different types of pigment molecules that utilize different wavelengths of light.

Why do some plant species require shaded conditions while other plant species require bright sunlight?

decreased amounts of ATP being produced by the plants

If you provided your shade-tolerant plants with their preferred wavelength of light, but only minimal amounts of water, which of the following would you expect to occur?


______ cells in leaves are specialized for photosynthesis.


An oxidation-reduction reaction involves the transfer of a(n) ______.


Which of these colors contributes the least energy to photosynthesis?

potential energy

A concentration gradient is a form of ______.

use ATP to fix carbon dioxide

Under arid conditions, C4 plants fix carbon dioxide more efficiently than C3 plants because C4 plants ______.

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