65 terms

Chapter 20 Vocab APUSH

William Steward
spokesman from NY; political operator who opposed the compromise; ideals of the union were less important than the issue of abolition
Napoleon III
nephew of Napoleon I and emperor of the French from 1852 to 1871 (1808-1873)
a Republic in southern North America
Alaska Purchase
Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million ("Seward's Folly")
new imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)
international Darwinism
original concept of survival of the fittest, applied to international realtions ; competition among nations was justified
Josiah Strong
a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas
Alfred Thayer Mahan
United States naval officer and historian (1840-1914)
Pan-American Conference
this was an international organization that dealt with trade; organized by james blaine; created to encourage cooperation and trust with the manufacturers
James Blaine
a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland
Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
Venezuela boundary dispute
Dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela over the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana; British had ignored American demands to arbitrate the matter with Sec. of State Olney saying that Britain was violating the Monroe Doctrine; president Cleveland supported Venezuela and decided to determine the boundary line and if Britain resisted this, the U.S. could declare war to enforce it; Britain eventually agreed to arbitration
the largest island in the West Indies
fanatical patriotism
Valeriano Weyler
He was a Spanish General referred to as "Butcher" Weyler. He undertook to crush the Cuban rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps, where they could not give assistance to the armed insurrectionists. The civilians died in deadly pestholes. "Butcher" was removed in 1897.
yellow journalism
sensationalist journalism
Spanish-American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
DeLome Letter
A private letter written by Enrique Depuy de Lome, Spainish Minister to U.S, critized President Mckinley call him "weak" and "a bidder for the admiration of the crowd"
a state in New England
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
an archipelago in the southwestern Pacific including some 7000 islands
George Dewey
a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States
Rough Riders
volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Hawaii Liliuokalani
She was the last Hawaiian ruler to govern the islands. January 17, 1893, pro-American forces overthrew the government and proclaimed a provisionist government in Hawaii with Sanford B. Dole as president. Liliuokalani had no choice but to surrender her throne. She made a plea to the U.S. government for reinstatement, and a representative of President Grover Cleveland found the overthrow to be illegal. Dole, however, refused to accept the decision.
Puerto Rico Guam
given to the U.S. with the conclusion of the Spanish-American War
Philippine annexation
A treaty ratified on Feb. 6, 1899 guaranteed this. The anti-imperialists fell just two votes short of defeating this treaty.
Emillio Aguinaldo
leader of the Filipino rebels
Anti-Imperialist League
objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900
insular cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
John Hay
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Open Door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
an irrational fear of foreigners or strangers
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
big-stick policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
(TR) , negotiations with Colombia, six mile strip of land in Panama, $10 million, US could dig canal without British involvement
Panama Canal
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
George Goethals
United States army officer and engineer who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal (1858-1928)
William Gorgas
Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and Malaria from Panama so work on the Panama Canal could proceed
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Santo Domingo
the capital and largest city of the Dominican Republic
TR won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for helping to end this war
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
gentlemen's agreement
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
great white fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Algeciras Conference
International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.
William Howard Taft
27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930)
dollar diplomacy
diplomacy influenced by economic considerations
a republic in Central America
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Lodge Corollary
In 1912 Senate passed resolution to Monroe Doctrine. It stated that non-European powers (such as Japan) would be excluded from owning territory in Western Hemisphere.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
moral diplomacy
foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Jones Act
(WW) 1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
Mexican civil war
Fransisco Villa, a dictator, rose to power in Mexico. The USA Attempted and failed his capture.
Victoriano Huerta
He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.
Tampico incident
In April 1914, some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.
ABC powers
The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914.
Venustiano Carranza
(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).
expeditionary force
Wilson ordered General Pershing to pursue Pancho Villa into Mexico. They were in nothern Mexico for months without being able to capture Villa. Growing possibility of U.S. entry into World War I caused Wilson to withdraw Pershing's troops.
John J. Pershing
US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him