Hypothesisa testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variablesindependent variablevariables that cause changes in dependent variablesinterpretive frameworka sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testinginterviewa one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subjectliterature reviewa scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new researchmeta-analysisa technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated
togethernonreactive researchusing secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people's behaviorsoperational definitionsspecific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to studyparticipant observationwhen a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an "insider" perspectivepopulationa defined group serving as the subject of a studyprimary datadata that are collected directly from firsthand experiencequalitative datacomprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural settingquantitative datarepresent research collected in numerical form that can be countedrandom samplea study's participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger populationreliabilitya measure of a study's consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproducedsamplessmall, manageable number of subjects that represent the populationscientific methodan established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusionssecondary data analysisusing data collected by others but applying new interpretationssurveyscollect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnairevaliditythe degree to which a sociological measure accurately reflects the topic of studyvalue neutralitya practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing resultsA measurement is considered ______ if it actually measures what it is intended to measure, according to the topic of the study.
d. quantitativeSociological studies test relationships in which change in one ______ causes change in another.
a. test subject
d. operational definitionCIn a study, a group of ten-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then weighed to see how much weight they gained. Which factor is the dependent variable?
a. The doughnuts
b. The boys
c. The duration of a week
d. The weight gainedWhich statement provides the best operational definition of "childhood obesity"?
a. Children who eat unhealthy foods and spend too much time watching television and playing video games
b. A distressing trend that can lead to health issues including type 2 diabetes and heart disease
c. Body weight at least 20 percent higher than a healthy weight for a child of that height
d. The tendency of children today to weigh more than children of earlier generationsCWhich materials are considered secondary data? a. Photos and letters given to you by another person
b. Books and articles written by other authors about their studies
c. Information that you have gathered and now have included in your results
d. Responses from participants whom you both surveyed and interviewedWhat method did researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau use to study Parrotheads?
c. Web Ethnography
d. Case studyCWhy is choosing a random sample an effective way to select participants?
a. Participants do not know they are part of a study
b. The researcher has no control over who is in the study
c. It is larger than an ordinary sample
d. Everyone has the same chance of being part of the studyWhat research method did John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd mainly use in their Middletownstudy?
a. Secondary data
c. Participant observation
d. ExperimentCWhich research approach is best suited to the scientific method?
b. Case study
d. Secondary data analysisThe main difference between ethnography and other types of participant observation is:
a. ethnography isn't based on hypothesis testing
b. ethnography subjects are unaware they're being studied
c. ethnographic studies always involve minority ethnic groups
d. ethnography focuses on how subjects view themselves in relationship to the communityAWhich best describes the results of a case study?
a. It produces more reliable results than other methods because of its depth
b. Its results are not generally applicable
c. It relies solely on secondary data analysis
d. All of the aboveUsing secondary data is considered an unobtrusive or ________ research method.
d. nonconfrontiveAWhich statement illustrates value neutrality?
a. Obesity in children is obviously a result of parental neglect and, therefore, schools should take a greater role to prevent it
b. In 2003, states like Arkansas adopted laws requiring elementary schools to remove soft drink vending machines from schools
c. Merely restricting children's access to junk food at school is not enough to prevent obesity
d. Physical activity and healthy eating are a fundamental part of a child's educationWhich person or organization defined the concept of value neutrality? a. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
b. Peter Rossi
c. American Sociological Association (ASA)
d. Max WeberDTo study the effects of fast food on lifestyle, health, and culture, from which group would a researcher ethically be unable to accept funding?
a. A fast-food restaurant
b. A nonprofit health organization
c. A private hospital
d. A governmental agency like Health and Social Services