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Medicine
Public Health
Epidemiolody
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Terms in this set (55)
Epidemiology
The study of patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Count
the simplest and most frequently performed quantitative measure in epidemiology
Count
the number of cases of a disease or other health phenomenon studies. Significant for rare diseases or symptom presentation.
Rate
ratio that consists of a numerator and a denominator and in which time forms part of the denominator.
Contains: disease frequency, unit size of population, or time period during which an event occurs
incidence rate
number of new cases of a disease that occur during a specific period of time in a population at risk for developing that disease; measure of risk
denominator or incidence
number of people who are at risk for developing the disease
prevalence rate
proportion of the population affect by a disease at a given time; measure of disease burden
provides indication of the extent of a health problem
mortality rate
measure of disease severity
help determine if the treatment of a disease has become more effective over time
Person years
the number of years contributed by an individual to a study. Used to determine incidence if the population isn't stable
Endemic
habitual occurrence/ presence of a disease within a given geographical area
Epidemic
widespread occurrence in a community or region of group of illnesses derived from a common or propagated source; abnormal occurrance
pandemic
worldwide epidemic
crude rate
simple calculation performed with no consideration of additional factors
specific rate
a particular subgroup of a population define in terms of age, race, gender or single cause of death or illness
direct age adjustment
Standard population is used in order to eliminate the effects of any difference in age between two or more populations
Indirect age adjustment
used when number of death for each age-specific stratum are not available.
Used to study mortality in an occupationally exposed population (is one type of career causing more mortality than the norm in a given age group)
case-fatality rate
number of people who die of a disease divided by the number of people who have the disease (gives the likelihood of dying from a disease)
time is expressed implicitly
proportional mortality ratio
mortality due to a specific cause during a time period divided by the mortality to all cases during the same time period multiplied by 100
Proportional mortality ratio
indicates relative importance of a specific cause of death; not a measure of the risk of dying of a particular cause
herd immunity
a group of people can become resistant to an attack by a disease in which a large proportion of the members are immune- even those individuals who are not vaccinated with me immune
disease screening
presumptive identification of an unrecognized disease or defect by the application of tests, examinations, or other procedure Classifies individuals as likely or unlikely to have a disease or defect. NOT a diagnostic test.
suitable disease
Has serious consequences, is progressive, disease treatment must be effective at an early age, prevalence of the detectable pre-clinical phase must be high. Examples: breast cancer, cervical cancer, hypertension
Characteristics of a good screening test
simple, rapid, inexpensive, save, acceptable
measures of validity of screening tests
sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+), predictive value (-)
sensitivity
the ability of the test to identify correctly all screened individuals who actually have the disease
=a / (a+c)
specificity
the ability of the test to identify only nondiseased individuals who actually do not have the disease
=b / (b+d)
predictive value (+)
the proportion of individuals screened positive by the test who actually have the disease
=a / (a+b)
predictive value (-)
the proportion of individuals screened negative by the text who DO NOT have the disease
=d / (c+d)
validity (accuracy)
the ability of a measuring instrument to give a true measure
reliability (precision)
the ability of a measuring instrument to give consistent results on repeated trials
lead time bias
when were the groups first diagnosed, protocol for the diagnosis. Those who are screened earlier know longer about the disease making it seem like a longer survival
life table
used to mathematically track the patients in your study based on treatment and survival for example
The probability of surviving five years is the product of surviving all the other years.
kaplan-meier method
the exact point in time when each death occurred is identified so that each death terminates the previous interval and a new interval is started
odds ratio
odds of exposure in diseased (cases) divided by odds of exposure in the non-diseased (controls)
=(a/b) / (c/d)
odds ratio of 1
odds of exposure is the same for cases and controls; no association between exposure
odds ratio > 1
odds of exposure among cases is greater than among controls; positive association
odds ratio < 1
odds of exposure among cases is less than among controls; negative association
P-value
Probability of getting something more extreme than your result, when there is no effect in the population. Should be 0.05 or below.
confidence interval
range that you will get 95% of the time if you repeat the experiment. If includes 1 then you won't have a statistically significant study
cohort study
study in which two or more groups of people that are free of disease and that differ according to the extent of exposure are compared with respect to disease incidence. Check to see if they obtain a disease based on lifestyle
case-control study
study with two groups where one group has the disease of interest (cases) and a comparable group does not (control)
analysis of cohort study
basic analysis involves calculation of incidence of disease among exposed and unexposed groups. Gives the incidence rates.
relative risk
incidence rate (risk) in the exposed/incidence rate (risk) in non-exposed
=(a/a+b) / (c/c+d)
relative risk
provides direct measure of association between exposure and outcome. ; ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence in the non-exposed group
relative risk of 1
no risk
relative risk > 1
elevated risk
relative risk < 1
reduced risk
attributable risk
The incidences of disease attributable to exposure
confounding
an alternative explanation for observed association between an exposure and disease
stratification
method of controlling for confounding
evaluates the association within homogenous categories (strata) of the confounding variable by dividing things out to determine its effect
multivariable anaylsis
simultaneously adjusts for several varaibles
interaction (effect modification)
when magnitude of effect of an exposure varies by levels of a third variable (large difference in confounding numbers); biological phenomenon
controlled by conducting a stratified analysis
number needed to treat (NNT)
calculated by taking the reciprocal of the difference in risk between the experimental group
recall bias
people with disease remember or report exposures differently (more or less accurately) than those without disease
interviewer bias
systemic difference in soliciting, recording, interpreting information
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