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HIST 221 Lesson 4
Terms in this set (16)
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Created by the British philosopher Herbert Spencer.
Analysis of how human society had advanced through competition and survival of the fittest. They regarded with horror any interference with social processes.
William Graham Sumner wrote the government only had to deal with the property of man and honor of woman. It had to defend it against crime. Beyond that it had to leave people alone.
a party organization that recruits members by dispensing patronage
the parties were run by unofficial internal organizations
consisted of insiders willing to do party work in exchange for public jobs or the sundry advantages of being connected.
integral to political life at every level.
tended toward one-man rule, although the "boss" rules more by the consent of the secondary leaders than by his own absolute power.
did much of what government system left undone
Republican Party activists who had switched to the Democratic Party because they did not like the financial corruption that was associated with the Republican candidate James G. Blaine in 1884.
They were more adept at molding public opinion than the running government. Controlled newspapers in journals, read by the educated middle-class, defined the terms of political debate, and injected an elitist bias into political opinion.
For them the government that was best was the government that governs least.
Doctrine of Separate Spheres
19th century belief that men were superior in worldly pursuits and women were superior in their moral influences.
Noted that woman's nature fitted them for a higher and more spiritual realm.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol.
Under Frances Willard, it became the leading women's organization in the country. It was led into the Prohibition party, supported knights of labor, got the coveted endorsement of woman suffrage by the Prohibition party.
Demonstrated how potent a force of woman might be in a public arena and how vibrant a political culture they could build.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
The separate but equal doctrine ignored the realities of Southern life. Segregated facilities were rarely if ever equal in any material sense, and segregation was itself intended to underscore the inferiority of blacks.
Cotton growing area in East Texas, where African-Americans composed more than half of the population.
Democrats carried this county by an overwhelming vote in 1900. The white man's party ruled this county for the next 50 years.
The county was intended to force the African to keep his place. The only way Blacks could survive was if they stayed out of politics and avoided trouble with whites.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white owned stores
She was thrown from a train in Tennessee for refusing to vacate her seat in a section reserved for Whites.
It launched her into a lifelong Crusade for racial justice.
Her mission was to expose the evil of lynching in the south. Emerged as the most outspoken black crusader against lynching.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
Known as "Mary Yellin'" and "the Kansas Pythoness," she made about 160 speeches in 1890. She criticized Wall Street and the wealthy, and cried that Kansans should raise "less corn and more hell."
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Election of 1896: candidates and issues
The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Pennsylvania, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake.
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
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