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the physical process of letting in audible stimuli without focusing on the stimuli

working memory theory

theory that states that we can pay attention to several stimuli and simultaneously store stimuli for future reference


the dynamic, transactional process of receiving, recalling, rating, and responding to stimuli, messages, or both

four "Rs" of listening

four components of the listening process: receiving, responding, recalling, and rating


the verbal and nonverbal acknowledgement of a message


being unaware of the stimuli around us


providing observable feedback to a sender's message


understanding a message, storing it for future encounters, and remembering it later


placing pieces of info into manageable and retrievable sets


evaluating or assessing a message


a view, judgement, or appraisal based on our beliefs or values

American Sign Language (ASL)

a visual rather than auditory form of communication that is composed of precise hand shapes and movements

message overload

the result when senders receive more messages than they can process


simultaneous performance of two or more tasks

conversational narcissism

engaging in an extreme amount of self-focusing during a convo, to the exclusion of another person

listening gap

time difference b/t our mental ability to interpret words and the speed at which they arrive at our brain

selective listening

responding to some parts of a message and rejecting others


a compulsive talker who hogs the conversational stage and monopolizes encounters


to pretend to listen by nodding our heads, looking at the speaker, smiling at the appropriate times, or practicing other types of attention feigning

gap fillers

listeners who think they can correctly guess the rest of a story a speaker is telling and don't need the speaker to continue

defensive listening

viewing innocent comments as personal attacks or hostile criticisms


listening carefully to a message and then using the info later to attack the sender

listening style

a predominant and preferred approach to listening to the messages we hear

people-centered listening style

a listening style associated with concern for other people's feelings or emotions

action-centered listening style

listening style associated with listeners who want messages to be highly organized, concise, and error-free


to question the assumptions underlying a message

content-centered listening style

listening style associated with listeners who focus on the facts and details of a message

time-centered listening style

listening style associated with listeners who want messages to be presented briefly and clearly


the process of identifying with or attempting to experience the thoughts, beliefs, and actions of another

nonjudgemental feedback

feedback that describes another's behavior and then explains how that behavior made us feel


restating the essence of a sender's message in our own words

dialogue enhancers

supporting statements such as "I see" or "I'm listening," that indicate we are involved in a message

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