How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

122 terms

verbal behavior

skinner
STUDY
PLAY
idea
what passes through the speakers mind what the speaker sees and hears and feels when he is having the _____
idea
does not provde an expansive understanding of verbal behavior because sensiory events upon which the notion of images occur is minimal
meaning
something expressed or communicated by an utterance, minimally helpful ind understanding verbal behavior
vocal verbal behavior
executed by an extensive musculature, diapragm, vocal cords, epilortis, soft palate, tongue, cheek, lips, and jaw
speech
produced by complex muscular responses of vocal behavior that affect the verbal environment by producing audible ________
acoustic product of vocal verbal behavior can be recorded ____________
phonographically
phonetic alphabet
_____________ was a breakthrough in recording verbal behavior because speech could be broken into constituent sounds and recorded
phonetic alphabet
____________ is used to record a sample of verbal behavior by placing appropriate symbols in a corresponding order
transcription
_____________ permits reader to construct a facsimile of the behavior which will have the same effect upon the verbal community as the original sample
use of phonetic alphabet
_________ makes no commitments about the functional significance of the units identified. For example we can record bird calls such as whooo
direct quotation
______________ is a record of verbal behavior which depends more explicitly upon a knowledge of the conditions under which the behavior occurred
direct quotation
______________ is little more then an acoustic or phonetic transcription which permits the reader to reconstruct relevant properties of the original behavior
hypostasis
an anomaly in scientific method in which the conditions responsible for the original response may not share anything in common with the conditions responsible for the response on the part of describing scientist is the practice of _____________
word
a unit of behavior composed of a response of identifiable form functionally related to one or more independent variables
response
a form of behavior
operant
the prediction and control of a kind of behavior
morphemes
smallest meaningful units
phrases, ideioms, clauses, sentences, etc
have functional unity as a verbal operant
verbal operant
exclusively a unit of behavior in the individual spaker
verbal repertoire
a collection of verbal operants that describes the potential behavior of a speaker
vocabulary
usually regarded as a warehouse of inanimate tools from which the speaker makes appropriate selections as he speaks
strength
every verbal operant may be conceived of as having under specified circumstances an assignable probability of emission conveniently called its ___________
emission
a better sign of strength if the circumstances are unusual
pitch level
an indicator of strength indicated by such things as high pitched playground shouting
indications of energy level or strength in written verbal behavior
size of letters, pressure of the pen, underlining
speed
_________ is a property of emitted verbal behavior which relates to the time in which successive parts of a sample follow one another or how long a response appears after the occasion for it has arisent.
repetition
measure of strength of verbal operant indicated by how response is repeated
example of repetition
NO! NO! NO! as compared to no, no or no a thousand times
complication of evidence of strength
energy level, speed of response, and repetition enter into the construction of different forms of response
measures of strength
energy level, speed of response, and even repetition
energy, speed, and repetitiveness
are all affected by special conditions of reinforcement
reinforcement
any operant verbal or otherwise acquires strength and continues to be maintained in strength when responses are frequently followed by the event called _________
reinforcing of consequences
is important to developing and maintaining verbal behavior
operant reinforcement
a way of controlling the probability of occurrence of a certain class of verbal response
how child acquires verbal behavior
relatively unpatterned vocalizations, selectively reinforced, gradually assume forms which produce appropriate consequences in a given verbal community
prior stimuli
important in the control of verbal behavior
3 term contingency
controls verbal behavior
stimulus discrimination
the process by which an organism becomes more likely to exhibit a given behavior when in the presence of a given prior stimuli
aversive control
a consequence which alters the strength of a verbal response by setting up a scenario in which the speaker gets out of situation by emitting a verbal behavior
speaker and listener
both important in understanding verbal behavior
mand
a verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore under the functional control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation
mand
characterized by the unique relationship between the form of the response and the reinforcement characteristically received in a given verbal community
mand
unique because emission is tied to reinforcement such as look! Bread! etc
request
mand in which listener is independently motivated to reinforce speaker
prayer or entreaty
mand which promotes reinforcement by generating an emotional disposition
question
mand which specifies verbal action and the behavior of the listener permits us to classify it as a request, prayer, or command as the case may be
advice
mand in which speaker is positively reinforced such as go west!
warning
mand in which the listener escapes aversive circumstances by listening to speaker
offer
mand in which gratuitous reinforcement of the listener is extended by the speaker
call
mand in which the speaker characteristically goes on to emit other behavior which may serve as reinforcement to the listener
permission
mand in which the listener is already inclined to act in a certain way but is restrained by threat of punishment and this mand cancels that threat
flattery or praise
may make listener more likely to act such as saying get me water my awesome friend
meaning of a mand
presumably the reinforcement which characteristically follows it
superstitious mand
a mand which cannot be explained by arguing that responses of the same form have been reinforced under similar conditions
magical mand
speaker creates new mands based on analogy of old mands
mand
A verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore controlled by a motivating operation
characteristic consequence
Reinforcement for a certain class of response topographies is typically the same each time.
mand
1st verbal operant emitted by children
formal properties of language
Involve topography (i.e., form, structure) of the verbal response
formal properties of language include
Phonemes, Morphemes, Lexicon, Syntax, Grammar, Word classifications (nouns, verbs, prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, articles), Articulation, intonation, pitch, etc.
Functional properties of language
involve causes of the response
skinners analysis of verbal behavior
A _functional_ approach to language training that Describes verbal behavior as it is related to the antecedents and consequences that surround a class of responses
verbal behavior
Emphasis on the behavior of the speaker, rather than just on the listener; mediated through the reinforcement of another person
mediated reinforcment
A stimulus change that:
occurs after a response,
increases the probability of that response under similar circumstances, and
results from the action of another
verbal behavior
Behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior.
Established and maintained by reinforcement that is mediated by another individual
The other person's action that produces the reinforcement must have been specifically trained in order to reinforce speakers
topography/form
The ________________of the behavior and the type or mode of the stimulus are irrelevant. (makes no difference what syntax, signing, written was used)
controlling variables of verbal behavior
Discriminative stimuli
Discriminative stimuusl---Verbal & Nonverbal
Motivating Operations
verbal stimulus
A physical energy change capable of affecting an organism's sensory receptors that
has a specific form or pattern which as a unit has controlling effectiveness, and
is the result of verbal behavior
point to point correspondence
A relation between a discriminative stimulus and the response it controls, where
the discriminative stimulus has two or more components,
the response has two or more components, and
the first (second) component of the stimulus controls the first (second) component of the response, etc.
The formal or dynamic characteristics of the stimulus and response are irrelevant.
response product
A stimulus that is the result of someone's behavior.
formal similarity
A relation between a stimulus that evokes a response and the response-product, in which
both are the same modality (e.g., both visual or both auditory), and Their physical patterns or sequences resemble one another (e.g., they look or sound alike)
formal control
When there is point-to-point correspondence between a response and the controlling variable that evokes it.
thematic control
When there is no point-to-point correspondence between a response and the controlling variable that evokes it.
audience
listener for verbal behavior
autoclitic
a tact which informs the listener of some nonverbal aspect of the primary verbal operant and therefore is controlled by nonverbal stimuli
convergent multiple control
identify when the occurrence of a single verbal response is a function of more than one variable
divergent multiple control
multiple control also occurs when a single antecedent variable affect the strength of many responses
echoic
a type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker
formal similarity
occus when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product share the same sense mode and physically resemble each other
generic (tact) extension
novel stimulus shares all the relevant or defining features of the original stimulus
impure tact
tacts which are impure because an MO affects the tact relation
intraverbal
a type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others
listener
audience
mand
a verbal operant for which the form of the response is under the functional control of motivating operations and specific reinforcement
metaphorical (tact) extension
novel stimulus shares some but not all the relevant features associated with the original stimulus
metonymical (tact) extension
verbal responses to novel stimuli in which none of the relevant features of the original stimulus configurations are shared but some irrelevant but related feature have acquired stimulus control
multiple control
all verbal behavior contains multiple functional relations among antecedents, behaviors, and consequences
solistic (tact) extension
occur when a stimulus property that is only indirectly related to the tact relation evokes substandard verbal behavior such as malaprops
speaker
one speaking
tact
a verbal operant under the functional control of a nonverbal discriminative stimulus and it produces generalized conditioned reinforcement
textual
reading without any implications that the reader understands what is being read
transcription
consists of writing and spelling words that are spoken
verbal behavior
behavior reinforced through the mediation of another persons behavior
verbal operant
an operant implying a type or class of behavior as distinct from a particular response instance
formal properties of language
involve topography of the verbal response
functional properties of language
involve the causes of the response
types of verbal operants
mand, tact, echoic, intraverbal, textual, and transcription
4 types of extended tacts
generic, metaphorical, metonymical, and solistic
audience
Anyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior. Different
audiences may control different verbal behavior about the same topic due to a differential reinforcement history. Teens may describe the same event in different ways when talking to peers verses parents.
autoclitics
The ___________ relation involves two related but separate three-term contingencies where some aspect of a speaker's own verbal behavior functions as an SD, or an MO, for additional speaker verbal behavior. It can be thought of as verbal behavior about verbal behavior.
automatic punishment
_________________ is a type of conditioned punishment where a response
product has punishing properties due to a specific conditioning history.
automatic reinforcement
__________________ is a type of conditioned reinforcement where a response product has reinforcing properties due to a specific conditioning history. Skinner used
the terms automatic reinforcement and automatic punishment in a number of his writings simply to indicate that an effective consequence can occur without someone providing it. l
copying a text
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal
discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response. This verbal operant is very similar to the echoic in that a speaker copies the verbal behavior of another speaker. Just as in learning to repeat words facilitates learning mands, tacts,
etc., learning to copy words facilitates reading and writing.
echoic
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response. Learning to repeat the words of others is essential to acquiring the other elementary verbal operants. Echoic behavior can become too strong as in echolalia.
formal similarity
________________ occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response
or response product (1) share the same sense mode (e.g., both stimulus and response are visual, auditory, or tactile) and (2) physically resemble each other. The verbal relations with formal similarity are echoic, coping a text, and imitation as it relates to sign language.
generic extension
All verbal extensions are a type of stimulus generalization. In generic
extension a response is evoked by a novel stimulus that shares all of the relevant or
defining features associated with the original stimulus.
impure tact
A verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by both an MO and a nonverbal
stimulus, thus the response is part mand and part tact. Most day-to-day verbal behavior is evoked by multiple variables. The value of Skinner's analysis can often be seen by its identification of the relevant variables evoking a particular response as exemplified by the impure tact where a
response may look like a tact, but it is also a mand (e.g., The verbal response The garbage can is full).
intraverbal
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that does not have point-to-point correspondence with that verbal stimulus. The
intraverbal is the opposite of the echoic, in that the words emitted by one speaker do not exactly match the words of another speaker. Intraverbal behavior constitutes the basis for social interaction, conversations, and much of academic and intellectual behavior. Questions are
mands, and answers are intraverbal.
listener
Someone who provides reinforcement for verbal behavior. A listener may also serve as an audience evoking verbal behavior. The distinction between listener and speaker is often blurred by the fact that much of a listener's behavior may involve becoming a speaker at the covert level
(e.g., thinking about what was said). Often a speaker may be his own listener.
mand
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by an MO and followed by specific reinforcement. Manding allows speakers to get their wants and needs reinforced by listeners. Manding plays an important role in language acquisition. However, some speakers may
mand excessively with questions and other attention seeking behaviors. Much of the negative behavior emitted by developmentally disabled individuals often functions as a mand.
metaphorical extension
A verbal response evoked by a novel stimulus that shares some, but not all, of
the relevant features of the original stimulus.
Metonymical extension
In metonymical extension a response is evoked by a novel stimulus that shares
none of the relevant features of the original stimulus configuration, but some irrelevant but related feature has acquired stimulus control.
multiple control
There are two types of multiple control. Convergent multiple control occurs
when a single verbal response is a function more than one variable. That is, what is said has more that one antecedent source of control. Divergent multiple control occurs when a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses. A single stimulus can evoke many different behaviors.
types of multiple control
convergent and divergent
point to point correspondence
between the stimulus and response or
response product occurs when the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal stimulus matches the
beginning, middle, and end of the verbal response. The verbal relations with point-to-point correspondence are echoic, copying a text, imitation as it relates to sign language, textual, and
transcription.
spaker
Someone who engages in verbal behavior by emitting mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, etc. A ___________ is also someone who uses sign language, gestures, signals, written words, codes,
pictures, or any form of verbal behavior.
tact
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a nonverbal discriminative stimulus and followed by generalized conditioned reinforcement.
tacting
_____________ allows a speaker to
identify or describe the features of the physical environment. The elements that make up one's
physical environment are vast, thus much of language instruction and educational programs
focus on teaching tacts.
textual
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product,
but does not have formal similarity between the stimulus and the response.
transcription
An elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written,
typed, or finger spelled response. Like the textual, there is point-to-point correspondence
between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.
verbal behavior
Behavior whose reinforcement is mediated by a listener; includes both vocal-verbal
behavior and nonvocal-verbal behavior Encompasses the subject matter usually treated as language and
topics such as thinking, grammar, composition, and understanding.
verbal behavior
As a result of his analysis of
the relations among antecedent events, response instances, and mediated reinforcement, Skinner
identified several basic types of verbal behavior (i.e., the verbal operants such as the mand and
tact). (see echoic, intraverbal, listener, mand, speaker, tact. textual)