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Ap Human Geography- Ch. 10: Development
Terms in this set (39)
A commodity chain is a series of links connecting the many places of production and...
Distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the market. Each link along the chain adds a certain value to the commodity, producing differing levels of wealth for the place and the people where production occurs.
To say a country is developing, then, is to say...
Progress is being made in technology, production, and socioeconomic well-being. Our modern notion of development is related to the Industrial Revolution and the idea that technology can improve the lot of humans.
sophisticated technology, high skill levels, extensive research and development, and high salaries tend to be...
Associated with the segment of global commodity chains located in the core. The segments located in the periphery, by contrast, tend to be associated with low technology, less education, little research and development, and lower wages.
GNP is the total value of goods and services...
Produced by a country's economy in a given year. GDP is the total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year.
The most common way to standardize GNI data is to...
Divide it by the population of the country, yielding the per capita GNI.
GNI is seen as a more accurate way of measuring...
A country's wealth in the context of a global economy.
GNI is a limited measure because it only includes transactions...
In the formal economy, the legal economy that governments tax and monitor. The informal economy is a significant element in the economies of many countries, but GNI statistics omit the informal economy entirely.
The criteria that may be used to measure social welfare...
Is literacy rates, infant mortality, life expectancy, caloric intake per person, percentage of family income spent on food, and amount of savings per capita.
The central concern is that development suggests a single trajectory through which all countries move.
The development model then, does not take geographical differences very seriously. Another criticism of the development model is that the conceptualization of development has a Western bias.
The modernization model assumes that all countries go through 5 stages of development. The society is traditional in the 1st...
Stage and the dominant activity is subsistence farming. In the 2nd, new leadership moves the country toward greater flexibility. In the 3rd, urbanization increases. In the 4th, technologies diffuse. The final stage is marked by high incomes and widespread production.
Concerned with how the dozens of newly independent countries in...
Africa and Asia would survive economically, Rostov looked to how the economically powerful countries had gotten where they are.
In the 1st stage of modernization, the social structure is rigid, and technology is slow to change.
The 2nd stage brings the preconditions of takeoff. The 3rd stage is takeoff. The countries experiences something akin to an industrial revolution. The 4th stage is the drive to maturity. The final stage is high mass consumption, where workers enter the service sector of the economy.
Neocolonialism is where the major world powers continue to control...
The economies of the poorer countries, even though the poorer countries are politically independent states. Some African countries are in neocolonialism.
What is the most common work for young girls trafficked from periphery nations to wealthier ones?
Domestic servants or street vendors.
A structuralist theory holds that difficult-to-change, large-scale economic arrangements shape...
What can happen in fundamental ways. The development of the global economy brought into being a set of structural circumstances, such as the concentration of wealth in certain areas.
The dependency theory is based on the idea that certain types of political and economic...
Relations between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop. Such dependency helps sustain the prosperity of dominant regions and the poverty of other regions.
Dollarization is when a poorer country ties the value of...
It's currency to that of a wealthier country, or when it abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as its own.
The World-systems theory proposes that social change in the developing...
World is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world. The modernization model maintains that all countries go through 5 interrelated stages of development.
According to the United Nations, the Human Development Index goes...
Beyond economics and incorporates the "three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living."
Conditions within the periphery, such as high population growth rates,...
Lack of education, foreign debt, autocratic (and often corrupt) leadership, political instability, and widespread disease hamper development.
Structural adjustment loans are loans granted by international financial institutions. To secure the loans, countries...
Had to agree to implement economic or governmental reforms, such as privatizing government entities, opening the country to foreign trade, reducing tariffs, and encouraging foreign direct investment.
South of the equator is low development.
North of the equator is high development.
Neoliberalism derives from the neo-classical economic idea that government intervention into markets is inefficient and...
Undesirable, and should be resisted wherever possible. The trade-off was the expansion of corporate control their economic destinies.
vectored diseases are a scourge in warm, humid parts of...
The periphery and semi periphery. The warm, moist climates of tropical environments, and infectious diseases spread rapidly through host populations.
What was the largest nation with a very high level of endemic Malaria?
Political corruption and instability can greatly impede economic development. When...
Governments become excessively corrupt, other countries and nongovernmental organizations sometimes cut off development and to the country.
export processing zones (EPZs), offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade...
Arrangements to foreign firms.
The maquiladora zone in Mexico attracts a mix of manufacturing...
Operations, depending on the skill levels of the labor force and the available infrastructure.
NAFTA has facilitated the movement of service industries from the...
United States to Mexico, including data processing operations. NAFTA prompted further industrialization of the border region.
Violent crime has become a particularly serious problem in Juarez,
Even as El Paso remains comparatively safe, and the slums of Tijuana are a world apart from much of San Diego.
Where zones of large-scale, modernized agriculture have developed in the periphery, foodstuffs are produced for...
The foreign market and often have minimal impact on the impoverished conditions of the surrounding lands. Little is produced for the local marketplace because distribution systems are poorly organized.
Desertification is often exacerbated by humans destroying vegetation and eroding...
Souls through the overuse of lands for livestock grazing or crop production. Desertification leaves land arid and it leads farmers and ranchers to turn marginal, semi arid lands into farm and ranch lands.
Tourism is now one of the major industries in the...
World and it sometimes brings wealth and employment to peripheral countries. Tourism frequently strains the fabric of local communities and it can also have the effect of altering, and even debasing local culture.
The distribution of wealth is affected by tariffs, trade agreements,...
Taxation structures, land ownership rules, environmental regulations, and many other manifestations of governmental authority. Government policies shape patterns of development within States.
The cotton for the T-shirt was grown in West Texas, where the cotton lobby has...
Effectively politicked for governmental labor programs and price supports. The cotton bale reaches China by ship, where it is spun into thread and woven into fabric. Women from rural China cut and sew T-shirts. Then, the T-shirts are shipped to the United States for sale.
Quota laws, like other policies made by governments, regional trade...
Organizations, and international political regimes affect whether and how regions can produce and exchange goods on the world market.
Their goals in building new capital cities away from colonial city centers are to separate...
Themselves from their colonizers, to bring together diverse groups into one state with a city built to reflect their common culture, to extend economic development into the inferior of the state, or to help establish control over a region with a population whose loyalties might not be to the state.
Some countries have so many NGOs operating them that...
They serve as what the Economist calls "a parallel state, financed by foreigners and accountable to nobody."
The idea behind a microcredit program is simple: give loans to poor people, particularly women,...
To encourage development of small businesses. This gives more fiscal power to women and it is credited with lowering birth rates. Microcredit programs have been less successful in places with high mortality rates from diseases such as AIDs.
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