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civics and economics final exam review
difficult and important terms i need to know for the exam
Terms in this set (180)
House of Burgesses
first representative legislative body in the New World; assembly of Virginia
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
founded Georgia, which became a haven for debtors.
The study of the rights and duties of citizens
people who had others pay their way, and gave up their head right, and gave 5-7 years of labor to their benefactor
the ruling authority of a community, organization that has the power to make and enforce laws
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.
a form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people
those residing in the US without permission from the government
a member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to it by birth or naturalization and is entitled to full civil rights
an action required by law
an action that citizens should take
Civil Immigration Services
agency responsible fore the naturalization process
e pluribus unum
Latin phrase means "out of many, one" and is used to show that the US is a nation of immigrants
a person who comes into a country to live there
legal alien - legally admitted as a permanent resident
English empiricist philosopher who developed the social contract theory
social contract theory
the theory implying that people give up some rights in order to receive or jointly preserve social order.(Locke)
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf (USA form)
kind of democracy in which citizens vote on each matter proposed to the government (not the US form)
A trade route which exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa.
the brutal journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route
first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony founded by Puritans in 1630
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
document that helped establish the practice of self-government in the co
City upon a hill
John Winthrop use this to describe the new colony belonging to the Puritans
This document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the government.
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island; most diverse
"leadership of the few"; a form of government in which the full exercise of political rights and power in a city-state was limited to the affluent ... many of them were aristocrats. In the 5th century BC, Sparta was the leading proponent of oligarchy.
government run by religious leaders
government control over every aspect of public and private life
Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638
New England Town meetings
Democratic style of government. Towns and cities grew around gathering places, and allowed mass participation in politics.
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, including Catholics; Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
John Peter Zenger Case
He was jailed for questioning the governor of New York. His case influenced freedom of speech and freedom of press.
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community.
English Bill of Rights
a shift of political power from the British monarchy to Parliament
An English policy of non-enforcement of trade regulations
Exploitation of the colonies for the benefit of the mother country. Trade restrictions were placed on the colonies by Great Britain.
a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
bill of attainder
a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court
an endorsed policy in the platform of a political party
a document stating the aims and principles of a political party
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
declaration of independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Albany plan of union
proposal by Benjamin Franklin to create one government for the 13 colonies
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Supporters of the Constitution
a person who opposed a strong national government
the agreement of the virginia and new jersey plans, by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
establishes the legislative branch
establishes the executive branch
establishes the judicial branch
explains relationship of states to one another and the national government; each state gives citizens of other states the same rights. full faith and credit clause
Outlines how amendments, or changes, to the Constitution are to be made.
The Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land
Ratification of the Constitution
Necessary and Proper Clause
constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers
to set a congressional bill aside in committee without considering it 10 days until it becomes a bill
a bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before congress adjourns
full faith and credit clause
states have to respect and enforce the judicial rulings of other states.
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
Speaker of the house
the leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives
President of the Senate
President Pro tempore
Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president
The lawmaking body for the state of North Carolina
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
The elected leader of a state's government
the official who becomes governor if the governor dies, resigns or is removed; also the president of the state senate
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
the authority to hear cases for the first time
an opinion that disagrees with the court's disposition of the case
An opinion that agrees with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling but differs on the reasoning.
a court opinion reflecting the views of the majority of the judges
a district of a city or town marked out for administrative purposes. voting district
group of officials who head government departments and advise the President
a clause that allows Congress to stretch the use of its powers
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
powers that the national government may exercise simply because it is a government
powers directly stated in the constitution
an endorsed policy in the platform of a political party
a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues
a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties
tending to resist change; favoring traditional values and views
The lack of interest among the citizenry in participating in elections.
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the general election
Election in which voters choose their leaders for elected offices
2 party system
political system in which the candidates of only two major parties have a chance of winning
all persons having the right to vote
currently holding an office
Alliances between political parties
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
political contributions made in such a way as to avoid the United States regulations for federal election campaigns (as by contributions to a political action committee)
campaign money that is subject to regulations by the FEC
Political Action Committee
Extention of an interest group that contributes money to political campaigns-financial arm of the interest group
a tort consisting of false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person
words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another
group of ordinary people who come together at a local level for a cause
Total Electoral Votes
Electoral votes needed to win
Electoral votes in each state
Total number of representatives and senators from each state
The smallest unit of election administration; a voting district
the right to vote
the study of how individuals and nations make choices about ways to use scarce resources to fulfill their needs and wants
limited quantities of resources to meet unlimited wants
The 4 factors of production
land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship
the most desirable alternative given up as the result of a decision
a cost that does not change as output is increased or decreased
the increase or decrease in costs as a result of one more or one less unit of output
a cost that rises or falls depending on how much is produced
technique of making a process self-operating by means of built-in electronic controls
Blue collar worker
Someone who performs manual labor, often in a manufacturing job, and who earns an hourly wage.
White collar worker
someone in a professional or clerical job who usually earns a salary
a reason for doing something; something that stimulates action
the skills and knowledge gained by a worker through education and experience
all human-made goods that are used to produce other goods and services; tools and buildings
Production Possibilities Frontier
Production Possibilities Frontier
a graph that shows the combinations of output that the economy can possibly produce given the available factors of production and the available production technology
when people, businesses, regions, and/or nations concentrate on goods and services that they can produce better than anyone else
a fixed amount of money paid to an employee for each pay period
Money earned for hours worked
using fewer resources than an economy is capable of using
products and services that satisfy human wants directly
A business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
Father of Communism. Wrote Communist Manifesto. Command Economy
an economic system based on private property and free enterprise
an amount of something available for use
the amount of goods and services people are willing to buy
something justly deserved, especially a punishment
the policy of keeping dangerous criminals in confinement to eliminate the risk of their repeating their offense in society
the act or process of discouraging actions or preventing occurrences by instilling fear or doubt or anxiety
settlement of a dispute by a person or panel chosen to listen to both sides and come to a decision. LEGALLY BINDING
the use of a third party, called a mediator, who encourages both sides in a dispute to continue negotiating and often makes suggestions for resolving the dispute. NOT Legally binding
a court order requiring appearance and/or testimony
wrongful acts for which an injured party has the right to sue
a legal document calling someone to court to answer an indictment
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
An economy in which production is based on customs and traditions and economic roles are typically passed down from one generation to the next.
a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions
an economic system based on free enterprise, in which businesses are privately owned, and production and prices are determined by supply and demand
a situation in which quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied
a quantity much larger than is needed
These Amendments deal with the rights of the accused, protects the rights of persons accused of a crime
a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
a tax on the production or sale of a good
Ex: tobacco, alcohol
a tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes decreases as income increases
Lower interest rate=
Expansion of the money supply
Higher interest rates=
Contraction (reduction) of money supply
Glass Steagall Banking Act
Act of congress that created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Gramm Leach-Bliley Act
-repeals the Glass-Steagall Act in 1999
-creates a new financial holding company authorized to engage in authorizing and selling insurance and securities, conducting both commercial and merchant banking, investing in and developing real estate and other "complimentary activities"
the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers.
tax on imported goods
A regional trade agreement made in 1993. Established the Euro currency
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
World Trade Organization. International body regulating trade among nations.
a tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes increases as income increases
tax on wages and salaries to finance Social Security and Medicare costs
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
repeal of prohibition
lowered the voting age to 18
Federal Communications Commission: established to oversee wired and wireless communication
a legal minimum on the price at which a good can be sold
a maximum price that can be legally charged for a good or service
Bill of Attainder
a law that declares a person, without a trial, to be guilty of a crime. (Illegal in the US)
Battle of Yorktown
the last major battle of the Revolutionary War
Battle of Lexington and concord
1775, The first battle of the revolutionary war and the place of the shot heard round the world.
levels of federal courts
federal district, U.S. appeals, U.S. supreme
levels of state courts
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