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87 terms

anatomy chapter 6

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What is the anatomical term for wide, sheetlike tendons
Aponeuroses
Which muscle tissue is branched, striated, and uninucleate
cardiac
Which of the following is NOT a function of muscle tissue
Creation of action potentials
What type of muscle tissue contains intercalated discs
Cardiac
The alternating dark _______ and light________ give the muscle fiber its striated appearance
A band; I band
The thin filament is formed of what three molecules
Troponin, tropomyosin, actin
What is the name of the functional unit of a muscle cell
Sacromere
Name the two myofilaments that slide past one another to allow muscle cells to contract
Actin and myosin
During exercise, if there are sufficient oxygen molecules available in the muscle tissue
glucose is converted to pyruvic acid and then to water, carbon dioxide, heat, and ATP
What are contractions that maintain the same tension; contractions that shorten the length of the muscle; are the type most often used in a workout in the gym
isotonic contractions
Sacroplasmic reticulum
releases calcium into the sacroplasm during contraction
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the neuromuscular junction
One sensory neuron may innervate many muscle fibers
Movement of the jaw superiorly would be
elevation
What does biceps mean
Divided into two
What does the term deltoid mean
Triangle shaped
What is the term for a muscle that helps a prime mover
A synergist
Which of the following correctly describes pronation
Putting your hands flat on a table
If you work out in the gym and do some bicep curls, the contraction of the biceps would be considered
flexion
Leg adductors would
move legs medially
The intercostals are found
between the ribs
What is the muscle that encircles the eye
Orbicularis oculi
Which of the following is a hamstring muscle
Semimembranosus; semitendinosus; biceps femoris
Which of the following is a stomach muscle
external oblique; rectus abdominus; internal oblique
The anatomical name for a muscle cell is a
muscle fiber.
An aponeurosis
is a flat, sheet-like connective tissue attachment of one muscle to another muscle.
The endomysium is a connective tissue that surrounds a
skeletal muscle fiber.
In general, skeletal muscles insertions are found
The part of a muscle attached to the
movable bone of the skeleton is termed
the insertion
A tissue with striations and many flattened nuclei under the plasma membrane in each cell would be called
skeletal muscle.
In a skeletal muscle fiber, the sarcomere is a repetitive unit that consists of the entire region between the
Z-lines.
Muscle tissue is responsible for
movement.
Muscles that are concerned with bracing actions are called
fixators.
Myofibrils are primarily composed of
actin and myosin.
Smooth muscle fibers are characterized by
form the contractile tissue of the walls of many hollow organs.
The bending or movement of a limb towards the midline of the body is known as
adduction.
The energy source that is directly responsible for muscle fiber contraction is
ATP.
The muscle whose action is dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot is the
tibialis anterior.
The muscle that causes flexion of the forearm is the
biceps brachii.
The muscle that extends and adducts the humerus is the
latissimus dorsi.
The muscle that is mainly responsible for a particular movement is known as the
prime mover.
The plasma membrane of a muscle cell is most usually termed a
sarcolemma.
What is the BEST definition of the origin of a muscle
the attachment of the muscle to a bone that is relatively fixed.
Which of the following can best be used to distinguish cardiac from smooth muscle
it is striated
Which of the following is a shared characteristic of cardiac and skeletal muscle
striations.
The "all-or-none" property of muscles is a phenomenon that occurs on the _____ level
cellular
Which of these muscles is located in the abdominal region
External oblique
The _______ does NOT cause movement at the knee joint
gluteus maximus
The primary function of all muscle tissue is
contraction or shortening.
The nuclei of skeletal muscle cells are pushed aside by long ribbonlike organelles called _______, which nearly fill the cytoplasm
myofibrils
The state of continuous partial contractions is called
muscle tone
What is the specific neurotransmitter that is released by motor neurons and stimulates skeletal muscle
Acetylcholine (Ach)
What specifically causes a muscle to contract
When the cocked heads of the myosin attach to the binding site the myosin heads pivot toward the center of the sarcomere.
When several muscles are contracting at the same time, the muscle that has the major responsibility for causing a particular movement is called the
prime mover.
Which of the following are characteristic of cardiac muscle
Intercalated disks
Which of the following is a characteristic of skeletal muscle
Another name for skeletal muscle is voluntary muscle. Skeletal muscle cells are striated. Skeletal muscle tissue can contract rapidly and with great force, but tires easily and must rest after short periods of relativity.
Which of the following is a function of muscle
Generates heat; Produces movement;
Maintains posture; Stabilizes joints
Which of the following is a muscle of the head and neck
Temporalis; Zygomaticus; Buccinator Masseter
Which of the following is true of an action potential
It is initiated by a temporary permeability to sodium ions which rush into the cell.; An action potential is a wave of electrical current.; An action potential is an all or nothing phenomenon - once started it goes to completion.; The result of the action potential is the contraction of the muscle cell.
Which of the following is one of the muscles of the abdominal girdle
External oblique
Which of the following is the only muscle type that is nonstriated and involuntary
Smooth
Which of the following refers to one neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates
Motor unit
Which of the following statements is true
Tetanic contraction is normal and desirable and is quite different from the pathologic condition of tetanus.; When a muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation is seen and the contractions are completely smooth and sustained the muscle is said to be in tetanus or in tetanic contraction.; Tetanic contractions of muscles are smooth and prolonged muscle contractions which can be slight or vigorous depending on what work has to be done.; Complete tetanus is a smooth continuous contraction without any evidence of relaxation and results from a very rapid rate of stimulation.
Which of the following statements is true regarding energy generation for muscle contraction
One of the pathways for ATP regeneration is direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate.; At rest and during light exercise, ATP is regenerated almost entirely by metabolic pathways that use oxygen.; Aerobic respiration refers to metabolic pathways that use oxygen.; The initial steps of glucose breakdown occur via a pathway called glycolysis, which does not use oxygen and is an anaerobic part of the metabolic pathway.
Which of the following statements is true regarding muscle attachments and body movements
The point of attachment of a muscle to the immovable or less movable bone is called the origin.; Flexion is a movement, generally in the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the two bones closer together.; Abduction is movement away from the body and occurs in the coronal plane.; In circumduction of the arm the distal end of the limb describes a cone.
frontalis
cranial aponeurosis, skin of eybrows, raises eybrows
orbicularis oculi
frontal bone and maxilla, tissue around eyes, blinks and closes eyes
orbicularis oris
mandible and maxilla, skin and muscle around the mouth, closes and protrudes lips
temporalis
temporal bone, mandible, closes jaw
zygomaticus
zygomatic bone, skin and muscle at corner of lips, raises corner of mouth
masseter
temporal bone, mandible, closes jaw
buccinator
maxilla and mandible near molars, orbicularis oris, compresses cheeck as in whistling and holds food between teeth during chewing
sternocleidomastoid
sternum and clavicle, temporal bone, flexes neck and rotates head
platysma
connective tissue covering of superior chest muscles, tissue around mouth, pulls corner of mouth inferiorly
pectoralis major
sternum clavicle and first to sixth ribs, proximal humerus, adducts and flexes humerus
rectus abdominus
pubis, sternum and fifth to seventh ribs, flexes verteberal column
biceps brachii
scapula of shoulder girdle, proximal radius, flexes elbow and supinates forearm
adductor muscles
pelvis, proximal femur, adduct thigh
quadriceps group vasti
femur, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament, all extends knee; rectus femoris also flexes hip on thigh
trapezius
occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae, scapular spine and clavicle, extends neck and adducts scapula
latissimus dorsi
lower spine and iliac crest, proximal humerus, extends and adducts humerus
deltoid
scapular spine and clavicle, humerus, abducts humerus
triceps brachii
shoulder girdle and proximal humerus, olecranon process of ulna, extends elbow
gluteus maximus
sacrum and ilium, proximal femur, extends hip
gluteus medius
ilium, proximal femur, abducts thigh steadies pelvis during walking
hamstring muscles
ischial tuberosity, proximal tibia, flex knee and extend hip
gastrocnemius
distal femur, calcaneus, plantar flexes foot and flexes knee
soleus
proximal tibia and fibula, calcaneus, plantar flexes foot