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33 terms

The Americans Chapter 25

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George Marshall
Army Chief of Staff who pushed for the formation of a Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
A Philip Randolph
president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and the nation's leading African-American labor leader. Organized a march on Washington to protest the military's discrimination against African Americans (that they could only be janitors)
Nisei
Japanese Americans who were born in United States and were therefore American citizens
internment camps
quickly constructed camps built to hold all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living in America after Pearl Harbor
National War Labor Board
limited wage increases
allowed negoatiated benefits such as paid vacations, pensions, and medical insurance
kept unions stable by forbidding workers to change unions
Office of Price Administration
Fought inflation by freezing wages, prices, and rents
Rationed foods such as meat, butgter, cheese, vegetables, sugar and coffee
War Production Board
Rationed fuel and mateirals vital to the war effort such as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber and plastics
Department of the Treasury
Issued war bonds to raise money for the war effort and to fight inflation
Revenue Act of 1942
Raised the top personal-income-tax rate to 90%
Added lower- and middle- income Americans to the income-tax rolls
Smith-Connally Labor Disputed Act
Limited the right to strike in industries cricial to the war effort
Gave the president power to take over striking plants
rationing
fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for hte military -- meant that households were limited in their purchasing and consumption of meat, shoes, sugar, coffee and gasoline
Dwight D. Eisenhower
commanded Operation Torch, an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa
D-Day
day of the invasion of Normandy
June 6, 1944
D-Day
George Patton
General of Third Army
Harry S. Truman
Roosevelt's running mate in his 4th term
Battle of the Bulge
December 16, 1944. 8 German tank divisions broke thoguht weak American defenses along an 80-mile front. Dent in Allied lines gave this desperate last-ditch offense made by allied forces its name
Liberation of Death Camps
first found by Soviet forces
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945
Douglas MacArthur
US General who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Chester Nimitz
US admiral of the Pacific fleet during WWII who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese Navy
kamikaze
suicide plane attack in which Japanese pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into allied ships
Manhattan Project
secret project with ultimate goal of developing the atomic bomb
J. Robert Oppenheimer
head of scientist working on creating the actual bomb
Hiroshima
important Japanese military center bombed on August 6, 1945
Nagasaki
Bombed on August 9, 1945
Yalta Conference
Feb. 1945 meeting with Roosevelt and Churchill and Stalin in Soviet City of Yalta to discuss creation of UN
UN (United Nations)
international peacekeeping body
Nuremberg Trials
23 nations tried 22 Nazi leaders for war crimes. 12 were sentenced to death and most of the rest went ot prison.
GI Bill of Rights/Servicemen's Readjustment Act
education and training for veterans paid for by the federal government
James Farmer
founded interrational movement called Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
cofronted urban segregation in the North
Japanese American Citizens League
JACL -- pushed gobvernment to compensate those sent to Japanese internment camps for their lost property