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Arrhenius acid

substance that produces H⁺ (H₃O⁺) when mixed with water

Arrhenius base

substance that produces OH⁻ as its only anion when mixed with water

Brønsted-Lowry acid

substance that can donate H⁺ to another substance

Brønsted-Lowry base

substance that can accept H⁺ from another substance

neutralization reaction

acid + base > salt + water

reaction involving acid and metal

acid + metal > salt + H₂

reaction involving base and metal

active metal + water > base + H₂


indicator which is colorless in acidic solution and pink in basic solution


indicator which is red in acidic solution and blue in basic solution

conjugate acid-base pairs

two chemical species in an acid-base process that differ by H⁺


substances containing a positive ion other than H⁺ and a negative ion other than OH⁻ that form from the neutralization of an acid and a base

salt hydrolysis reactions

reactions of salt ions w/ water

salt of strong base and weak acid


salt of weak base and strong acid


salt of strong acid and strong base


salt of weak acid and weak base

acidic, basic, or neutral (depending on hydrolysis of two ions)

binary acids

H + one other element

oxy acids

H + O + one other element

carboxylic acids/organic acids


amphoteric chemicals

substances that can act either as proton donors or as proton acceptors

relative concentrations of [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻] in a neutral solution

[H₃O⁺] = [OH⁻]

relative concentrations of [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻] in an acidic solution

[H₃O⁺] > [OH⁻]

relative concentrations of [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻] in a basic solution

[H₃O⁺] < [OH⁻]


negative of base 10 logarithm of hydrogen-ion concentration

neutral pH


acidic pH

< 7

basic pH

> 7

what is the relationship b/w pH and pOH

pH + pOH = 14


a mixture that is able to release and absorb H⁺ ions, keeping a solutions pH constant

what two ingredients make up a buffer

weak acid and soluble salt of its conjugate base/weak base and soluble salt of its conjugate acid


carefully controlled neutralization

standard solution

acid or base of known concentration in a tiration

equivalence point

point in a titration when H⁺ and OH⁻ are of equal moles

end point

point in a titration when indicator color changes

titration equation


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