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35 terms

Chapters 18 and 19 (Acids, Bases, and Salts) Flashcards

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Arrhenius acid
substance that produces H⁺ (H₃O⁺) when mixed with water
Arrhenius base
substance that produces OH⁻ as its only anion when mixed with water
Brønsted-Lowry acid
substance that can donate H⁺ to another substance
Brønsted-Lowry base
substance that can accept H⁺ from another substance
neutralization reaction
acid + base > salt + water
reaction involving acid and metal
acid + metal > salt + H₂
reaction involving base and metal
active metal + water > base + H₂
phenolphthalein
indicator which is colorless in acidic solution and pink in basic solution
litmus
indicator which is red in acidic solution and blue in basic solution
conjugate acid-base pairs
two chemical species in an acid-base process that differ by H⁺
salts
substances containing a positive ion other than H⁺ and a negative ion other than OH⁻ that form from the neutralization of an acid and a base
salt hydrolysis reactions
reactions of salt ions w/ water
salt of strong base and weak acid
basic
salt of weak base and strong acid
acidic
salt of strong acid and strong base
neutral
salt of weak acid and weak base
acidic, basic, or neutral (depending on hydrolysis of two ions)
binary acids
H + one other element
oxy acids
H + O + one other element
carboxylic acids/organic acids
RCOOH
amphoteric chemicals
substances that can act either as proton donors or as proton acceptors
relative concentrations of [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻] in a neutral solution
[H₃O⁺] = [OH⁻]
relative concentrations of [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻] in an acidic solution
[H₃O⁺] > [OH⁻]
relative concentrations of [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻] in a basic solution
[H₃O⁺] < [OH⁻]
pH
negative of base 10 logarithm of hydrogen-ion concentration
neutral pH
7
acidic pH
< 7
basic pH
> 7
what is the relationship b/w pH and pOH
pH + pOH = 14
buffer
a mixture that is able to release and absorb H⁺ ions, keeping a solutions pH constant
what two ingredients make up a buffer
weak acid and soluble salt of its conjugate base/weak base and soluble salt of its conjugate acid
titration
carefully controlled neutralization
standard solution
acid or base of known concentration in a tiration
equivalence point
point in a titration when H⁺ and OH⁻ are of equal moles
end point
point in a titration when indicator color changes
titration equation
MaVa=MbVb