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Digestive system

Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, except the


Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?


The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the


Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds.

muscularis mucosa

The ________ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels.


Which layer of the digestive tract has a dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?


Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the


Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?


A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the


________ pair(s) of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity.


The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the

all of the above

The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the


Carbohydrate digestion begins in the


The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following, except

absorption of monosaccharides

Which of the following is a function of the tongue?

all of the above

The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called


The chamber within a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the

pulp cavity.

The crown of a tooth is covered by


________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping.


________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing.


________ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding.


________ are also known as canines.


Functions of teeth include

all of the above

________ crush and grind food.

Both bicuspids and molars

During deglutition,

all of the above

Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in


The ________ supports most of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement.

mesentery proper

What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?

lesser omentum

Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?

greater omentum

The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called


Regions of the stomach include all of the following, except


Which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect to?


The greater omentum is

a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera

The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the


The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the


A feature of the digestive epithelium that assists expansion of the stomach is the presence of


The ________ mechanically digests ingested food.


Parietal cells secrete

hydrochloric acid

Chief cells secrete


Gastric pits are

openings into gastric glands.

The enzyme pepsin digests


An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that assists in the digestion of milk proteins is


All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach, except that it

recycles bile.

Which of the following is greater?

the pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal

Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result you would expect Mary to be at risk for

vitamin B12 deficiency.


carry absorbed fats to the lymphatic system.

Plicae and intestinal villi

increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.

Plicae circulares are

circumferential folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine.

Which of these enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?

all of the above

Products of fat digestion are transported initially by


Duodenal glands are characteristic of the

small intestine

The villi are most developed in the


The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the


The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is the


An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucus secretion by the submucosal duodenal glands and dilation of intestinal capillaries is

vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is


An intestinal hormone that stimulates contraction of the gallbladder to release bile is


An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is

gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)

An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is


The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is


Which of these descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?

causes gall bladder to contract

In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid

rich in bicarbonate ion (buffers)

During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,

there is an increased flow of action potentials along the vagus nerve to the stomach.

The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the

entry of food into the stomach

All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion, except that it

precedes the gastric phase

The secretion of acid and enzymes by the gastric mucosa is controlled and regulated by

all of the above

Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?

large intestine

At the left colic flexure, the colon becomes the

descending colon.

Haustra are

expansible pouches of the colon

Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the


The taeniae coli are

longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall

A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the


Identify the salivary gland that secretes a watery mixture rich in salivary amylase and buffers.


Each of the following is a function of the liver, except

antibody production.

Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?


Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from

parasympathetic stimulation

The fusion of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the

common bile duct

The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of

pancreatic acini

The pancreas produces

all of the above

The pancreas produces ________-digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes.


Bile is stored in the


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