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39 terms

Unit 9 APUSH

The 1920s, Great Depression, and WW2
STUDY
PLAY
Lost Generation
Gertrude Stein
describes the 1920s b/c of lost innocence from WW1
Margaret Sanger
birth control
Progressive Era
Life in America in the 1920s
Rebirth of nativism
Disrespect for the law
Maldistribution of wealth
Nativism in the 1920s
1. Red Scare (1919 - 1921)-- A. Mitchell Palmer, state laws prohibited communist talk
2. Laws passed-- 1921 Emergency Quota Act and 1924 Immigration Act (quota system)
3. KKK
4. Crimes blamed on foreigners (Lindburgh baby)
Disrespect for the law in the 1920s
Organized crime due to prohibition (Speak Easies, Al Capone)
1919 Volstead Act "enforced" prohibition
Maldistribution of wealth in the 1920s
Reasons for Prosperity in the 1920s:
1) Andrew Mellon's tax policies (trickle-down economics in theory)
2) cheap oil from America
3) increased productivity
--new technology
--education (John Dewey, learn by doing)
--scientific management (Frederick Taylor, observe the workplace)
4) new consumer-based industries
--advertising, "The Man Nobody Knows" by Barton
How Automobiles changed America
1. 1 in 6 Americans depended on the auto industry for their jobs
2. changed family life forever
3. begins suburbanization and highways
4. break down rural isolation
5. railroads have competition
6. improves air quality
Tensions in the 1920s
Wets vs. Drys
Fundamentalism vs. Modernism (Scopes monkey trial, 1925)
Rich vs. Poor
Owners vs. Unions (anti-union period)
Blacks vs. Whites (Marcus Garvey, founder of UNIA, back to Africa movement)
Traditional Woman vs. Flapper
Urban vs. Rural (1920 census said more in cities than farms)
Traditional families vs. Modern families
Buy on cash vs. Buy on credit
Culture
Movies-- 1903 The Great Train Robbery (first), Birth of a Nation (greatest, DW Griffith), 1927 The Jazz Singer (minstral shows, Al Jolson)
Harlem Renaissance-- jazz, Langston Hughes, Zora Hurston
Novelists-- F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway
Poets-- E.E. Cummings, TS Eliot
Architect-- Frank Lloyd Wright
Social critic-- Sinclair Lewis
1920 Esch-Cummins Act
Railroads
RR should consolidate and become more profitable, and ICC should promote those goals
Harding's supreme court
Taft (chief justice)
Albert Fall (secretary of Interior)
Charles E. Hughes (secretary of State)
Andrew Mellon (secretary of Treasury)
Hoover (secretary of Commerce)
Harding's "beliefs"
Gov't should cooperate with big business and let business solve its own problems
Ignore antitrust laws
Appoint business people to regulatory boards
1921
Recession (Congress to raise tariffs)
--1922 Fordney-McCumber tariff
VA and AL set up, bonus to WW1 vets
--Bonus Bill
Farmers suffering
1922 RR strike
injunction to go back to work
1923 Adkins vs. Children' Hospital
reverses Muller decision about special protection to women in the workplace
Teapot Dome Scandal
Albert Fall took bribes, had to decide which companies could drill for oil on public land
Harding's presidency
Harding's domestic policy
1921-- Recession, bonus bill for vets, frustrated farmers
1922-- tariff, RR injunction, veto bonus bill
1923-- scandals, Adkins case
Harding's foreign policy
1921-- WWI officially ends, Washington Naval Conference (Four, Five, Nine power treaty, ratio of 5:5:3 for dreadnoughts in 5 power)
1922-- oil in Middle East, observers in League of Nations, Mussolini comes to power
Coolidge's domestic policy
1924-- McNary-Haugen bill (farmers), veto bonus bill
Coolidge's foreign policy
1924-- troops out of Dom. Repubic, Dawes Plan (lend money to countries to repay us)
1926-- troops to Nicaragua, oil disputes in Mexico
1928-- Kellogg-Briand Pact of Paris (outlaws war)
Beliefs of Hoover
1. Isolation
2. Nothing is wrong with the economy
3. Causes of the depression are overseas
4. Individual initiative (rags-to-riches)
5. Gov't handouts (entitlements) destroy moral fiber of Americans
6. by 1932, gov't has a responsibility for human welfare
October 1929
Stock market crashes
Begins Great Depression
Hoover's domestic policy
1929-- Agricultural Marketing Act (money to farm co-ops, sets up Federal Farm Board)
1930-- Hawley-Smoot tariff (destroys foreign markets), public works projects
1932-- Bonus Bill Army, Reconstruction Finance Corp. Act (bailout), Norris-Laguardia act (outlaws injunctions that break up strikes and yellow dog contracts)
Hoover's foreign policy
1931-- Japan's military takes control and invades Manchuria
1932-- Japan bombs Shanghai and leaves League, Stimson Doctrine (not recognize territory gained by force)
1933-- Hitler comes to power, troops out of Nicaragua
FDR's New Deal
3Rs: relief, recovery, reform
FDR ideas
Brain trust-- close advisors
Fireside Chat-- radio speeches
Hundred Days-- set standard for president's first 100 days in office
Keynesian Economics
John Maynard Keynes
Pump priming-- pour money into economy to get economy flowing
Important Elections
1932-- complete rejection of Hoover's approach to the Depression
1936-- overwhelming support to FDR's approach to the Depression
Schechter vs. NY
1935
NIRA unconstitutional b/c can't regulate intrastate business
"sick chicken" case
Butler vs. US
1936
First AAA unconstitutional b/c how to pay for it
AAA
Artificial scarcity-- pay farmers not to farm
Parity price-- gov't determined price floor
NIRA
Codes of Fair Competition-- voluntary, all businesses are to cooperate to develop a plan for the entire industry (min. wage, max. hr/wk)
Collective Bargaining-- right of a union to represent all employees in negotiations with employer
Conservatives in 1930s
American Liberty League
Al Smith
FDR destroying liberty and creating socialism
Radicals in the 1930s
Father Coughlin-- antisemitic, social justice
Huey Long-- "share the wealth" ($5000 to every American)
Francis Townsend-- money to senior citizens
John Lewis
Pres. United Mine Workers Union
organized unskilled workers
combined with AF of L to form AFL-CIO in 1955
Frances Perkins
first woman to serve in White House cabinet (Dept. Labor)
Mary McLeod Bethune
highest ranking black woman in FDR's administration
1937 recession
less pump-priming
new social security tax
Entitlement programs
programs people think the gov't owes them